Chicago as Global City: Census Analysis The neoliberal transformation of the U.S. urban landscape was an integral part of the economic restructuring that began in the 1980s and have been lasting till today. The purpose of this chapter is, therefore, to analyze the exact impact of neoliberal transformations on the class and occupational structure of the U.S…
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Methodological Framework. For the purposes of the present study, a problematique of urban restructuring serves as its principal object. With this in mind, two core aspects will be highlighted. The first one is connected with the occupational shift brought about by neoliberal globalization, which is inescapably followed by the emergence of the “dual city” (Mollenkopf and Castells) class structure, i.e. the development of the new professional-managerial class, on the one hand, and the growth of the ranks of service worker-composed underclass, on the other. The latter aspect is, in fact, adjacent to the former one, resulting from the need to cope with the problem of the formation of new consumption models that are directly tied to the newest changes in production/occupational patterns. For that reason, the research in post-modern urban geography, with a specific focus on its relationship with capitalism, is of utmost importance – as demonstrated, inter alia, by the pivotal works by David Harvey. That said, an examination of the intricacies of the neoliberal transformation of Chicago in the decades from the 1980 on is scarcely possible without taking into account the results of the censuses that document the demographical changes that transpired in the city for the duration of this period. That is why it is necessary to turn the attention of a researcher to these data. Chicago Census Data as a Source. The main purpose of a census is to provide information on socio-economic and demographic variables of a given population groups. That is why the use of U.S. Censuses and related datasets are of utmost importance within the context of the present study. The comparative analysis of the cumulative changes in Chicago’s demographics and particularly occupational structure will be duly reflected in this study’s analysis. Chicago’s Data for the Period of 1980 – 1990 Summary. Within this period, the city of Chicago still retained certain basic elements of a Fordist, industry-dominated, social structure. The following table may reflect some underlying trends that nevertheless brought about a gradual shift towards a more ‘post-modern’ situation. Missouri State Census Data Center: Basic Demographic Trend Report United States Cities AREA: Chicago city GEOCODE:17-1051 IL ------1980------ ------1990------ ----CHANGE---- CHG VARIABLE VALUE PCT VALUE PCT AMOUNT PCT IN % ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- T1. TOTAL PERSONS....... 3,005,078 100.0% 2,783,726 100.0% -221352 -7.4 LIVING IN FAMILIES.... 2,519,648 83.8% 2,274,594 81.7% -245054 -9.7 -2.1 IN GROUP QUARTERS..... 46,066 1.5% 46,903 1.7% 837 1.8 0.2 IN RURAL AREAS........ 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 0 0.0 T2. RACE / HISPANIC WHITE................. 1,512,411 50.3% 1,265,953 45.5% -246458 -16.3 -4.9 AFRICAN-AMERICAN...... 1,197,174 39.8% 1,086,389 39.0% -110785 -9.3 -0.8 ASIAN & PAC. ISLANDER. 73,745 2.5% 104,141 3.7% 30,396 41.2 1.3 AM. INDIAN, ESK. ALEUT 6,804 0.2% 6,761 0.2% -43 -0.6 0.0 HISPANIC (ANY RACE)... 423,357 14.1% 535,315 19.2% 111,958 26.4 5.1 T3. PERSONS BY AGE UNDER 5............... 231,181 7.7% 214,994 7.7% -16,187 -7.0 0.0
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