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Pahl & Beitz (1988) developed the systematic approach in design, and divided the flow of work into four distinct steps. According to Pahl and Beitz, the first and initial stage in prescriptive design is clarification of the task. This entails collecting enough materials regarding information of the project, the requirements of the specific design, and the constraints to be faced in the actual design work. These stages will prepare a learner psychologically by offering the background information regarding the design, what they are actually required to do and the limits in terms of requirements and the scope of the actual design. The second stage according to this model would be the conceptual design. This process as Pahl & Beitz explain involves establishing functional structures, searching for the most suitable and viable solution principles and combining these to form a concept or design alternatives. This approach broadens a learner’s approach to have various ways in which they may approach the design process by understanding the component better through its functional dimension, and broadening the concept to find other design alternatives. According to Pahl & Beitz, after understanding the functionality of the component and having several design approaches, the next step would be the embodiment design.
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