In this current research processes, methods and techniques are discussed in detail for each layer of the TCP/IP model. The first request was initiated from the physical layer along with the IP that was recognized on the network layer. …
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The paper tells that the approach for accessing X stream from a remote location encompasses Open System Interconnection (OSI) as well as the TCP/IP model. There are many methods, procedures, technologies and processes that are associated with each layer of these two OSI models. However, in order to explain the connectivity of X stream from a remote location or home, we will align findings with the TCP/IP OSI model. The TCP/IP model is not completely aligned with the OSI model. Unfortunately, there is no existence of an agreement associated with the description of the TCP/IP model. Usually, it is considered and agreed that the TCP/IP model has less layers than the OSI model i.e. The application layer incorporates protocols including FTP, SMTP, Telnet etc. These application layer protocols send data to the next layer i.e. transport layer. The transport layer than constructs the header and data to send it via Transmission control Protocol (TCP) or User Data gram Protocol (UDP). Likewise, the network layer assigns the IP address and delivers the packet to the required Ethernet present at the network access layer. After discussing the layers of the TCP/IP Model, the researcher will discuss protocol layering on these layers in order to explain the access mechanisms that are carried out when a home user wants to access the X stream. However, protocol layering is not easy, as it may seem difficult to understand initially. As discussed before, we will demonstrate the connection of X stream from home user via TCP/IP model that works on four layers. These four layers are associated with four types of protocol data units (PDU’s) i.e PDU 1, PDU2, PDU3 and PDU4. Exhibit 2 shows the initiation of a packet from the application layer i.e. layer four. Exhibit 2 Image retrieved from (James F. Curose & Keith W. Ross, 2000) Likewise, layer four creates a message M and is considered to be PDU 4, as it is associated with the highest layer. The message M incorporates several parameters that are modified and customized by the application itself. Parameters may include sender name, type of the message and related data. The home computer passes the data of the complete message M to the layer three of the protocol stack. The exhibit 2 shows layer three that is the home computer breaks the PDU 4 in to two parts i.e. M1 and M2. Likewise, the layer three is the home computer that combines with M1 and M2 which are called headers for developing PDU 3 in to two separate layers. Likewise, headers holds the additional information that is required by sender and the receiver on layer three to deploy the service from layer three to layer four. Accordingly, the process continues in the source and adds more headers while travelling through each layer till PDU 1 headers are created. Now PDU 1 is ready to be transmitted from the home computer to the X stream server via physical layer i.e. the physical link. On the other side i.e. X stream network receives PDU 1 and routes them to the protocol stack. Likewise, at every layer, the headers representing similar values are removed. Lastly, M is reconstructed from M1 and M2 and router to the X stream application. Network Access Layer Network layers is integrated with physical and data link layer that is responsible for physically connecting the computer with the wired or wireless medium for data transmission from the X stream. There are different types of wired networks available based on different
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(“Computer Communications & Networks Lab Report Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words”, n.d.)
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(Computer Communications & Networks Lab Report Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 Words)
“Computer Communications & Networks Lab Report Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/design-technology/1394614-computer-communications-networks.
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