GIS design and technology - Essay Example

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The intention of the current study is Geographical Information System (GIS) that was developed to be a technological tool which can be used to understand the geography of the world and make decisions which are both logical and intelligent. …
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Download file to see previous pages The paper tells that Geographical Information System (GIS) was created with the ability to assemble, analyze, manipulate, update, store and display information which has been geographically referenced according to the location of the data. For it to function it requires a vast amount of data hence making the projects which use GIS very expensive. Its data originate from images of satellites, maps, GPS data from survey an all other instruments which can attribute data. Before the development of Internet GIS large amount of data of different field like road networks, sewer lines, telecommunication lines and natural resources were useless as they were available in large unorganized states which makes them hard to retrieve and analyze. The creation of GIS solved this problem hence the organization of GIS databases which had all the information needed. Elangovan attributes GIS development is to different disciplines like databases, computer science, computer mapping, Computer Aided Design, remote sensing, geography, Cartography and many more. Different discipline had different functions in the GIS. Databases is used to store, manipulate and retrieval of the data. Computer mapping is used to create maps in the computer while the remote sensing is used to take satellite images. Through the combination of these and other disciplines the GIS emerged a super field which is very helpful. The development of GIS can be generally grouped into four stages of development according to Elangovan (2006, p.10). Between 1960 and 1975 there was introduction of the GIS concept. Due to this fact only few people used in mainframe computers. In between 1973 and early 1980s though many experiment and practice were done, there was little information as individuals were the one doing the research hence duplication of work. There was development of many GIS software between 1982 and late 1990s. This improved the growth of GIS. The last stage is between 1990 and 2000. In this stage there was standardization of the GIS due to the easy availability of software both for ensuring user friendliness and for a platform for working. After 2000 GIS had multi use like virtual reality, mobile mapping and web based GIS. Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1965 was successful in the creation of processing of graphic data through computer aid. This fastened the development of GIS. Agencies in USA, Canada and the UK started using the GIS for the processing of large data amounts. The first to use GIS was the Canada government. The Canadian government used the GIS for management of land and other resources. The US government used the GIS for Geographical Retrieval and Analysis System (GIRAS) which is used to analyze data on the use of land and land cover. In 1970s the Swedish bank on land data used the GIS to make the registration of land and properties automatic. After the development of Geographical Information Mapping and Management System (GIMMS) by the University of Minnesota, in 1963, there was publishing of the Atlas of Britain through the use of information in the GIS. It was printed by the Bickmore and his team of cartography. In 1970 there was publishing of the first multicolour map in Britain. The production of commercial GIS was done by the Harvard Graphic labs in 1970. There was also creation of many cartographic packages like GIMMS, GRID, GEOMAP and MAP. Between 1970s and 1980s there was development of many GIS packages. In 1975 after the first academic meeting about GIS in the UK there was release of the ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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