The intention of the current study is Geographical Information System (GIS) that was developed to be a technological tool which can be used to understand the geography of the world and make decisions which are both logical and intelligent. …
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The paper tells that Geographical Information System (GIS) was created with the ability to assemble, analyze, manipulate, update, store and display information which has been geographically referenced according to the location of the data. For it to function it requires a vast amount of data hence making the projects which use GIS very expensive. Its data originate from images of satellites, maps, GPS data from survey an all other instruments which can attribute data. Before the development of Internet GIS large amount of data of different field like road networks, sewer lines, telecommunication lines and natural resources were useless as they were available in large unorganized states which makes them hard to retrieve and analyze. The creation of GIS solved this problem hence the organization of GIS databases which had all the information needed. Elangovan attributes GIS development is to different disciplines like databases, computer science, computer mapping, Computer Aided Design, remote sensing, geography, Cartography and many more. Different discipline had different functions in the GIS. Databases is used to store, manipulate and retrieval of the data. Computer mapping is used to create maps in the computer while the remote sensing is used to take satellite images. Through the combination of these and other disciplines the GIS emerged a super field which is very helpful. The development of GIS can be generally grouped into four stages of development according to Elangovan (2006, p.10). Between 1960 and 1975 there was introduction of the GIS concept. Due to this fact only few people used in mainframe computers. In between 1973 and early 1980s though many experiment and practice were done, there was little information as individuals were the one doing the research hence duplication of work. There was development of many GIS software between 1982 and late 1990s. This improved the growth of GIS. The last stage is between 1990 and 2000. In this stage there was standardization of the GIS due to the easy availability of software both for ensuring user friendliness and for a platform for working. After 2000 GIS had multi use like virtual reality, mobile mapping and web based GIS. Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1965 was successful in the creation of processing of graphic data through computer aid. This fastened the development of GIS. Agencies in USA, Canada and the UK started using the GIS for the processing of large data amounts. The first to use GIS was the Canada government. The Canadian government used the GIS for management of land and other resources. The US government used the GIS for Geographical Retrieval and Analysis System (GIRAS) which is used to analyze data on the use of land and land cover. In 1970s the Swedish bank on land data used the GIS to make the registration of land and properties automatic. After the development of Geographical Information Mapping and Management System (GIMMS) by the University of Minnesota, in 1963, there was publishing of the Atlas of Britain through the use of information in the GIS. It was printed by the Bickmore and his team of cartography. In 1970 there was publishing of the first multicolour map in Britain. The production of commercial GIS was done by the Harvard Graphic labs in 1970. There was also creation of many cartographic packages like GIMMS, GRID, GEOMAP and MAP. Between 1970s and 1980s there was development of many GIS packages. In 1975 after the first academic meeting about GIS in the UK there was release of the
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(“GIS design and technology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3250 words”, n.d.)
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(GIS Design and Technology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3250 Words)
“GIS Design and Technology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3250 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/design-technology/1394429-answering-questions.
According to the report the development highlighted the capabilities and importance of the system today in an increasingly information-consuming society. This aspect revealed the changing roles of GIS in the past two decades. It underscores an expansion of GIS demand expanding beyond the purely professional and scientific requirements.
The main area of concern about GIS is its relative error in its methodologies. This has led to the coming up with several recommendations that are practical which assist in the location of sources of possible errors and define the data quality. Sources of errors in GIS can be classified into operational and inherent, with the two responsible for reducing the products quality generated using geographical information systems.
Practitioners also define a GIS as including the procedures, operating personnel, and spatial data that go into the system”. For acquiring GIS, cost, risks, benefits, and impacts associated with the GIS are calculated, in order to continue with the current data and information products.
Programs and an interface make up the GIS software component. Their functions include generating, analysing, manipulating, storing and displaying geographic information or data (Delaney and Niel 2006). Examples of these include IDRISI, Microstation, SPANS and AutoCAD Map.
Magellan provides a comprehensive paperless geo caching that is easy to navigate along with rich graphics. Moreover, the color screen is sharp and easily readable in bright sunlight along with easy navigation with menus and visible graphics. Map screens are integrated with compass overlay in order to enable intuitive navigation along with customizable dashboard screen (, MagellanGPS - Go Geocaching with eXPlorist GC).
ion support and decision0making capacity has encouraged a vast number of institutions in Qatar to take up GIS as a prime part of the infrastructure in their organizations. In light of emerging facets of the country’s economic growth and renewed development, the government is
Various GIS software has been developed to help in modeling landscapes and allocation of various factors of development through spatial organization. As a specialist in GIS, I can use the application in many different but beneficial ways
The author stresses that this survey involves an analysis of various security measures put by this bank. Besides, will involve an examination of the bank door locks, the various surveillance mechanism put in place, the bank alarm system, emergency facilities, access control and electricity and lighting in the bank.
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