Onion Model - Essay Example

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This essay is about Onion Model. It represents an organizational culture with four layers: the symbols with observable behavior and artifacts, the heroes, the rituals and the values that embrace an emotional state and knowledge of a proper and improper behavior…
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Onion Model
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Onion Model Onion model represents an organizational culture with four layers Hofstede: Cultures,” n.d The utmost layer contains the symbols with observable behavior (e.g. people’s interaction) and artifacts (e.g. technological equipments). The second utmost layer of the model includes the heroes, which pertain to people (e.g. productive workers) who can benefit the company. The next layer contains the rituals that could influence one’s belief to how others would be treated. For example, one’s ritual belief entails courtesy to respect others. Interestingly, the core layer of the onion model consists of the values that embrace an emotional state and knowledge of a proper and improper behavior (e.g. right or wrong values).
Universal and Particular Values
Universal and particular values generalize one’s dependence or independence with laws to mediate others in an organization. Universalistic people fundamentally follow the laws with contractual agreements without considering others’ reasons. On the other side, particularists value friendships than policies. Hence, these people would amend the laws to change the strict rules to save a companion.
Individual and Communitarian Values
The values refer to one’s independent or dependent self-construal. Independent individuals feel worthy to work without bothering others (Gutterman, 2010). In contrast, communitarian individuals prefer a connectedness to others as a source of motivation to work. This could mean that communitarian people value their work as they are inspired to feel the presence of others.
Specific and Diffuse Values
Specific/diffuse refer to how an individual take things as a whole. People who are adept to specifics take their personal life and work separately (Gutterman, 2010). They would do and give different tasks to others one at a time like the Americans. In contrast, people who use the diffuse values tend to multitask by combining work and leisure time like the Japanese. Moreover, diffuse members would even distribute diverse tasks to others.
Achievement and Ascriptive Values
Achievement/ascription refers to one’s status perception to others which would affect one’s behavioral treatment towards them. Achievement-oriented people view others’ accomplishments, experiences, and knowledge as the basis of treating them with respect and superiority. On the other hand, ascriptive-oriented people view others’ superiority based on their demographic status such as wealth, gender, and age (Gutterman, 2010). Americans value others’ achievements while Chinese people prefer one’s social class status in ascribing one’s dominance.
Internal and External Values
Internal/external values characterize one’s ability to be in control or under control from the environment. Internal-motivated people believe that every situation could be manipulated. On the other hand, external-motivated people believe that there are certain things that are beyond their control. Hence, internal-motivated people would feel contempt if their attitude would discord with people in a situation while external-motivated people are flexible enough to adjust themselves in every circumstance (Gutterman, 2010).
Sequential and Synchronic Values
These values refer to one’s time management. People who use sequential time would organize things in a slow process. They would plan ahead of time without making things complicated. In contrast, people who use time synchronically would multitask to control the recurrence of the past to the present and future (Gutterman, 2010). Thus, these people would usually pressure themselves to instantly do things and make unpredictable plans.
Values for Past-present-future
Past-present-future makes a dimension for the different time orientation. An organization who flashbacks the past could have the tendency to repeat mistakes. In contrast, an organization’s focus in the present time could clarify one’s goal at a definite time (Gutterman, 2010). However, the futuristic time orientation could pressure people to do things in advance.
Four Corporate Culture Types
The four corporate culture types of Trompenaars and Woolliams (2003) are guided missile, Eiffel tower, familial, and incubator. Guided missile concerns the group’s focus to solve things with the synthesis of people’s personalities and skills (“Trompenaars’ Four Diversity,” 2012). Eiffel tower focuses on people’s roles with logic and human resource. The familial type captures the whole picture of authoritative figures and power with a dominating figure like a male. For the incubator, people would incline themselves for creativity and improvement.
Cultural Dilemma
A cultural dilemma refers to how one would choose the best between two contributing options. Thus, conflicting ideas arise from choosing which is best for the organization. In order to solve the dilemma, one should know how to avoid its dissonant tendencies. Hence, comparisons between two situational factors should be done such as “individual vs. group, objective vs. subjective, rules versus exceptions, etc.” (Trompenaars & Woolliams, 2003).
Gutterman A. (2010). Trompenaars’ and Hampden-Turner’s seven dimensions of
culture. Retrieved from
Hofstede: Cultures and organizations-Software of the mind. (n.d.). Retrieved from
Trompenaars’ four diversity cultures. (2012). Retrieved from
Trompenaars, F., & Woolliams, P. (2003). Business across cultures. West Sussex,
ENG: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Read More
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