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Introduction - Essay Example

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In case the acid is a carboxylic is a carboxylic acid, esters have the general formula R1COOR2, where R1 and R2 are alkyl or aryl groups. This type of reaction is known as…
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Download file to see previous pages The esterification equilibrium is displaced towards ester formation by use of an acid or large excess of alcohol. Additionally, the esterification reaction can be displaced by removal of water using a dehydrating agent e.g. sulphuric acid or distilling off the water. Esters can as well be prepared from alcohols with acid anhydrides and acyl halides. The reverse reaction of esterification is called hydrolysis. Esterification cannot be catalyzed by a base but hydrolysis can be catalyzed by OH- ions (Daintith 85).
Spectroscopic techniques typically involve the interaction of some form of electromagnetic energy with molecules to generate a spectrum that maybe easily translated to disclose the incidence of distinctive groups and structural features. They are regularly used to authoritatively characterize the chemical, physical and specific structural attributes of an organic molecule. They are mainly efficient when analyzing a unadulterated compounds. They include: Infra-Red (IR) spectroscopy- a technique for observing distinctive bending and stretching frequencies of bonds. The spectra of regular organic functional groups have characteristic Infra-Red light absorption ranges that maybe used to identify functional groups in an unidentified organic compound. Additionally, the fingerprint region of an IR spectrum usually provides a distinctive pattern for an organic molecule. This pattern can be used for identifying an organic compound by comparing it with a known sample (Fox and James 209). Nuclear Magnetic Resonance-a technique that identifies the nuclear spin flipping provoked in the radio frequency array of a molecule placed in a high magnetic field. Because 1H as well as 13C are magnetically vigorous nuclei. NMR spectroscopy may offer crucial structural information about organic molecules. Information acquired from H-NMR and C-NMR is corresponding. In H-NMR: the chemical shifts, ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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