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Ketobemidone - Research Paper Example

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Name: University: Course: Tutor: Date: Ketobemidone Introduction Ketobemidone is a strong analgesic that has been used as a pain reliever for a very long period time. The compound is considered to be a pain reliever that is considered to be almost at par with morphine…
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Download file to see previous pages This paper explores the synonyms of Ketobemidone, its chemical structure, its discovery and synthesis, physical and chemical properties as well as its uses. Various Names for the Compound Ketobemidone is a compound with numerous names. The compound is also using other multiple synonyms such as: 1-[4-(3-Hydroxyphenyl)-1-methylpiperidin-4-yl]-1-propanone; Cetobemidone; Ethyl 4-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-1-methylpiperidin-4-yl ketone; Cliradon; Cliradone; Cetobemidon; Cymidon; Hoechst 10720; Ciba 7115; Ketobemidonum; 1-[4-(m-Hydroxyphenyl)-1-methyl-4-piperidyl]-1-propanone; 1-Propanone, 1-[4-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-1-methyl-4-piperidinyl]-;1-Propanone, 1-[4-(m-hydroxyphenyl)-1-methyl-4-piperidyl]-; NSC 117863; or A 21 Lundbeck1. The Chemical Structure of Ketobemidone The chemical structure of the compound is: How Ketobemidone Was Discovered and Synthesized “The history of synthetic drugs with morphine-like effect is relatively short, dating back only to 1939, when Eisleb produced the now famous 1-methyl-4-phenylpiperidine-4-carboxylic acid ethyl ester.”2 Eisleb together with his colleagues first synthesized Ketobemidone in 1942 at I.G. Farbenindustrie’s laboratory at Hoechst amidst World War II. However, for many years, research had been on-going to find synthetic substances with the same structure as morphine. Small, Eddy together with their co-workers at the United States Public Health service3 worked tirelessly to find these synthetic substances with morphine-like structure. The experiments were founded on the supposition that morphine’s analgesic effect was intrinsic in dibenzofuran, phenanthrene, dibenzofuran as well as carbazole nucleus, which were identified as components of morphine. Earlier attempts were however futile with no development of any synthetic compound with desirable analgesic effect. Organic chemistry experiments rarely yield expected results and products obtained usually come by chance. The analgesic activity of 4-phenylpiperidines was discovered by chance in 1940s in the course of research by scientists to find antispasmodic characteristics on analogues of cocaine.4 The main focus of Eisleb and Schaumann was to find an alternative compound for atropine. The researchers discovered that the compounds had high levels of analgesic properties apart from their spasmolytic properties. Carboxylic acid exhibited the best outcomes and was later sold in Germany as dolantin, which was wrongly assumed to be non-addictive. As research intensified, several other compounds with structures like morphine were developed including methadone, which was discovered in Germany during the Second World War.5 The initial study of ketobemidone became available in print in 1946 after which it took short duration before being introduced in clinical medicine. In 1954, the Economic and Social Council urged governments to stop producing and trading on ketobemidone arguing that it is a dangerous drug.6 Ketobemidone is synthesized by alkylation of (3-methoxyphenyl) acetonitrile with bis (2-chloroethyl) methylamine, which is then reacted with ethylmagnesiumbromide. The resulting product is then O-demethylated with hydrobromic acid to form ketobemidone. “1-Methyl-4-(m-methoxy)phenyl-4-cyanopiperidine on reaction with ethyl magnesium bromide forms ketone intermediate, which on demethylation with hydrobromic acid affords ketobemidone.”7 Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Ketobemidone Physical Properties ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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