The Synthesis of Sulfanilamide - Lab Report Example

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These were the first efficient drugs to treat and prevent bacterial infections. Generally, sulfa drugs contain sulfomide structure. Most of these drugs are antibiotics and they act by inhibiting folic acid biosynthesis…
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The Synthesis of Sulfanilamide
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Download file to see previous pages The use of the drug is based on the concept of metabolic antagonism. Sulfa drugs as antimetabolites act by competing with para – amino benzoic acid for incorporation into folic acid (ORPHDT, Chrles, 2003). Sulfanilamide (which is also known as 4-Aminobenzenesulfonamide) is a sulfonamide antibacterial. It belongs to a group of chemotherapeutic agents called sulfa drugs which were discovered in the 1930s. It has a molecular formula of C6H8N2O2S and molecular weight of 172.2049. It contains the sulfonamide functional group that is attached to aniline chemically. It functions by inhibiting competitively enzymatic reactions which involves para - aminobenzoic acid. When it is administered, it facilitates the dying of micro-organisms since the micro-organism are unable to make folic acid which is essential in cell division (TEBBUTT, Peter, 1998). It was the first drugs used successfully to combat diseases such as pneumonia, blood poisoning and meningitis. The general structure of sulfanilamide is as indicated in the graphic below. An example of this drug is methotrexate Other method of synthesizing Sulfanilamide Sulfanilamide is synthesized in several ways. The procedure outlined below can be used in the synthesis of sulfanilamide. Chemicals required Sodium Hydroxide Acetanilide Chrolosulfoic acid Hydrochloric acid Ammonium hydroxide Sodium bicarbonate Procedure: 2.5 ml of 0.1 Ml NaOH is added to the glass wall and 1.8 grams of acetanilide is placed in a dry 50ml Erlenmeyer flask. The acetanilide is melted by heating it gently with a Bunsen burner after which the flask is allowed to cool in the ice bath. In the hood, 5ml of chrolosulfonic acid is transferred to acetanilide and the flask is attached to the apparatus. After ten minutes, the flask is removed and heated in the additional 10 minutes in a hot water bath that is at a temperature of 70oC to facilitate completion of the reaction. Afterwards, 30 grams of crushed ice are then added to the 250 ml beaker and the mixture transferred using a pipette (while stirring the mixture) onto the ice. The flask is then rinsed using 5ml cold water and then transferred to the beaker containing the ice resulting in the formation of a precipitate. The precipitate is then stirred to facilitate the breakage of bigger lumps. The beaker and the flask are rinsed using ice water. In the hood, a water bath is prepared in the 250 ml beaker at a temperature of 70oC after which the crude is then placed into the Erlenmeyer flask. 11 ml of dilute ammonium chloride is then added and stirred up to break up the lumps. The solution is then heated in cold water for ten minutes and allowed to cool by placing it in a water bath for several minutes. After cooling, the p-acetanidobezene is then collected on the Buchner funnel and the flask with the product rinsed with 10ml of ice water. The solid is then transferred to 25ml round – bottomed flask and 5.3 ml of dilute hydrochloric acid added. Boiling stones are then added, reflux condenser attached and the mixture heated till the solid dissolves. The mixture is then refluxed for additional five minutes and then allowed to cool to room temperature. In case the solid appears, it’s then boiled again.100 ml o the mixture is then transferred to the beaker and drop – wisely, 5.0g of sodium bicarbonate added in the 10 ml of water while stirring constantly.After the addition, Sulfanilamide begins forming. Method used to prepare Sulfanilamide in ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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