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Chapter 12: Biosignaling - Term Paper Example

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The chapter 12 of the book Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry addresses the Biosignaling that is the ability of cells to receive and act on the received signals. The actions of these signals often take effects beyond the plasma membrane. …
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Chapter 12: Biosignaling
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According to the reading of chapter 12, signals provide an appropriate response such as a motion to food thereby providing a way of detecting toxic substances or information that relates to dormant spores in a nutrient depleted medium. The chapter also highlights that plant cells or the multicellular hormones or organisms with different functions often exchange varied signals. Additionally, the plant cells usually respond to sunlight variation as well as to the growth hormones. Alternatively, animal cells often exchange information concerning the ion and glucose concentration in the extracellular fluids thereby facilitating the interpretation of the independent metabolic activities that take place at different parts of tissues. The same mechanisms can also be used to examine the embryo and the correct placement of the cells during their development.
In all the above cases, it is apparent that the vital function of the bio-signals is to present information that are detected by specific receptors and that are in turn converted to cellular response. Notably, all these processes involve chemical processes....
s; however, organisms often use few evolutionary conserved mechanisms in detecting the extracellular signals that they in turn transduce into intracellular signals (Nelson, Lehninger, and Cox 452). Therefore, the main aim of this chapter is to examine the vital classes of signaling mechanisms of cells and analyzing and integrating specific biological functions of bio-signals. Some of the highlighted functions of the bio signals including nerve signal transmission, response to hormone and growth factors, they are responsible for sensing smell, taste, and smell as well as controlling the cell cycle (Nelson, Lehninger, and Cox 466). In most cases, the resultant signaling pathway is often defined with phosphorylation, which is formed few specific target cell proteins that usually changes activities thereby changing the activities of the cells. Article: Cell Communication and Signaling The related article in this discussion is a research article, “NADPH oxidase 2-derived reactive oxygen species signal contributes to the bradykinin-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression and cell migration in brain astrocytes.” This research was concern on the functionality of the brain in connection to pathological processes due to inflammation, neurodegeneration, and injuries (Lin 01). According to the research, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) often plays a significant role in the brain pathological processes described in this article. Additionally, the research was concerned with the function of the bradykinin (BK) of reducing several inflammatory proteins expressions in the brain astrocytes. Some recent studies have indicated that increased oxidative stresses are often implicated in the brain injury and inflammation. Nonetheless, the functionality of the BK in reducing the Read More
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