Organic Compound Boiling Points Name: Institution: ORGANIC COMPOUND BOILING POINTS 1-hexanol is a 6 carbon chain organic alcohol and has a boiling point of 428-432 K. 3-Methyl-1-Butanol is also known as isoamyl alcohol and has a boiling point of 404K. 1-Pentanol, also known as n-pentanol, has a boiling point of 410-412 K while 3-Methyl-2-Butanone has a boiling point of 367-368K…
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In order to figure out the order of organic compound boiling point, it is important to understand their trends. The important thing to make into consideration is that the boiling point is usually indicative of the force strength bonding its molecules together. When many molecules stick together, they will consequently need more energy to break the bonds and release the molecules as gases. Three important trends are considered including branching, which decreases the compound’s boiling point, and the number of carbons as boiling points increases with the increase in carbon atoms. Additionally, the relative strength of intermolecular forces is important (Hill & John, 2011: p32). The strength of the bonds in descending order is; Ionic> Hydrogen bonding> dipole- dipole> Van der Waals forces of dispersion. The influence of these attractive forces is dependent on the present, functional groups. The first trend is the strength, relative for all four compounds, of the intermolecular forces. Molecules that are held together by dipole- dipole interactions, formed by the polarization of C-O bonds have a lower intermolecular energy when compared to compounds with hydroxyl groups, which are, in turn, capable of forming hydrogen bonds (Macomber, 2009: p11). Organic alcohols have significantly higher boiling points than other organic compounds because of this property, as can be derived. Molecules that have relatively the same molecular weights have their boiling points determined by the present, functional group. 3-Methyl-2-Butanone has a dipole-dipole intermolecular interaction model, and so it has a significantly low boiling point as compared to the other organic alcohols with hydrogen intermolecular bonding (Macomber, 2009: p12). The positive end of one molecule is attracted and bonded to a negative region of another molecule. For molecules with a similar functional group, such as the organic compounds under investigation, the boiling points increase with a rise in molecular weight. The key force that connects molecular size and intermolecular strength is the Van der Waals forces of dispersion that are proportional to the molecules’ surface area (Mehta & Manju, 2009: p29). Therefore, as the length of the chain increases, the surface area of the molecules also increases. Consequently, this results in an increased capability of the molecules in the compound to be attracted to each other. As the length of the chain increases, regions where they line up with each other increase. Each interaction may not be worth a lot, but added up over the entire chain length, the Van der Waals forces of dispersion have the ability to exert tremendous effects (Mehta & Manju, 2009: p29). 1-Hexanol has the highest molecular weight, coming in at 102.67 g/mol1, thus provides more surface area for intermolecular interaction. With the increased energy required to separate the molecules, the boiling point is high. Both 1-Pentanol and 3-Methyl-1-butanol have a molecular weight of 88.15 g/mol1, which is still higher than 3-methyl-2-butanone, which has a molecular weight of 86.13 g/ mol. Molecular symmetry is yet another by-product of Van der Waals forces of dispersion’s dependence on surface area. The straighter the compound’s molecules are, the better they line up, as well as bond. The spherical the molecules become, due to branching, the lower the surface area left for intermolecula
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A compound on the other hand, is a pure substance made of two or more chemically combined elements. Compounds are separable by chemical means such as electrolysis, oxidation and reduction (Phillips, 1998). A mixture and a compound also vary on the composition of the component elements.
It also describes how to differentiate an element and a compound despite being pure substances by results from decomposition. In the paper the metals, non-metals, and transitional elements are discussed to demonstrate the bonds. Ionic bonding formed between metals and non metals are explained and illustrated.
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Name: Instructor’s Name: Course: Date of Submission: Organic Food Outline The organic food industry has been booming in the United States. This has resulted in many arguments regarding the fact that whether organic food is superior in nutritive value and has other benefits over the conventional foods.
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e considered to be table salt, marble and carbon dioxide whereas the organic compounds are considered as acetic acid extracted from vinegar, alcohol extracted from wine, tartaric acid from grapes, citric acid from lemon and sucrose from sugarcane. It is assumed that organic
Organic foods have a growing market, even though they have higher prices than conventional foods (Winter and Davis 118). The high demand for organic foods can be attributed to the benefits obtained from the food substances. Organic foods are nutritious and healthy because they do not contain harmful chemicals in farming.
The author states that interest is an amount paid for utilization of borrowed money. A borrower pays interest to the lender for credit or any other comparable liability. In other words, interest happens to be charge for a privilege of borrowing cash. Borrowing is important in everyday life since it is a source of funding.
From the knowledge of how the elements combine, we can then be able to explain specific characteristics that are observed in different substances all around us. Deeper understanding can even assist in the
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