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On Lewis Structures - Essay Example

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Name Instructor Course Date Lewis Structures What Do Lewis Structures Mean? Studies in chemistry have involved representation of various concepts in models, structures and geometry. The Lewis structures, which were introduced by Gilbert N. Lewis (1916) are mostly referred to as the dot structures and geometries of molecules (Schodek and Bechthold 279), best understood in the concepts of the inner and valence electrons…
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Essay on Lewis Structures
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Download file to see previous pages The following are examples of the structures in a monoatomic form: Lewis structures are also used to indicate bonding in the form of a dash (-) for covalent bonds or a charge (+ or -) for ionic bonds (Schodek and Bechthold 301). Some examples: The bonds that are formed in the polyatomic structures usually have angles. The angles result to molecular geometry, which is best represented experimentally with the use of balls and sticks. The bonding angles that are involved in the analysis include linear, tetrahedral, trigonal pyramidal, trigonal planar, or bent. These are the geometries used in the Lewis structure experiments, though there are other geometric formations, where the structure does not adhere to the octet rule. Experimental Use The experimental representation of the Lewis structure requires the use of the following materials: A ball that has four holes, to be used as the central atom Inflexible sticks or straws for the single bonds a Flexible sticks or connectors for the double or triple bonds The lone pairs around the central atom requires inflexible sticks NB: the balls used should be different in color as well as size to ease the representation of the elements and the electrons, with the central ball preferably larger. Arranging the experimental balls requires adherence to the guidelines for arranging the atoms, electrons and bonds in the structures. Guidelines Involved In Using the Structures The rules in the experimental process of producing the Lewis structures follow these steps: 1. Draw the dot and structure diagram of the molecules or ions in question. For this step, knowledge on the bonds formed, their angles as well as geometry is important. The arrangement of the elements in the molecules is first established at this point. The central atom has to be established, the central atom, the element that holds most of the bonds is the structure. The following step to get involved into is calculation of the valence bonds that are involved in bond formation, for a molecule (Schodek and Bechthold 501). The individual atoms and their configuration have to be considered in this case. The periodic table of elements is handy at this stage. The follow-up is the identification of bonds, following the octet rule i.e. a stable atom has to obtain a stable gas configuration in bond formation. 2. Determination of the overall and molecular geometry of the dot structure Using the knowledge of the geometry of formation, only as the octet rule applies, studying the dot structure allows inception of whether the structure is a linear, tetrahedral, trigonal pyramidal, trigonal planar, or bent formation. The main concept regarding the bond formation and geometry is the bond angles, which are 180° for the linear, 120° for the trigonal planar, 109.5° for the tetrahedral, 90°, 120° and 180° for the trigonal by pyramidal, 90° and 180° for the Octahedral, etc (Schodek and Bechthold 492). Once this information is collected, it can be used to determine the shape of the structure, which shall be compared with the structure founded in the dot structure. Comparison f ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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