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Synthetic studies towards the marine natural product cylindrospermopsin the causative agent in freshwater toxic blooms - Literature review Example

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Synthetic studies towards the marine natural product cylindrospermopsin; the causative agent in freshwater toxic blooms Name Institution ABSTRACT Cylindrospermopsinin (C YN) is gradually being recognized as of the most global importance of the freshwater algal toxins…
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Synthetic studies towards the marine natural product cylindrospermopsin the causative agent in freshwater toxic blooms
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"Synthetic studies towards the marine natural product cylindrospermopsin the causative agent in freshwater toxic blooms"

Download file to see previous pages This report synthesizes the current information on Cylindrospermopsin accumulation embracing information on the global distribution of Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) producers and summing-up of Cylindrospermopsin ecological and human effects. Studies carried out on bioaccumulation of Cylindrospermopsin are systematically reviewed collectively with analysis of accumulation patterns. A discussion pertaining aspects that influence bioaccumulation rates and potentials are outlined, together with detection, monitoring and risk assessments. Lastly, major gaps in the present research have been identified for future research. AREA OF STUDY This research, as well as others that have been carried out in this field seek to provided reliable information about the interconnection between cylindrospermopsin (a marine natural product) and its causative nature in freshwater toxic blooms, it anticipated to address a number of aspects such as properties of cylindrospermopsin, its distribution and detection, its impact on human health, ecological effects, patterns of toxic uptake and deposition among others. Previously, there have been several approaches used to address these aspects. This research sums up some of the descriptive data, together with information from previous studies, in an attempt to explain synthetic evidence towards the marine natural product (cylindrospermopsin) which is the causative agent in freshwater toxic blooms. It reviews as well, human health risk and environmental challenges associated with cylindrospermopsin. The study focus on Cylindrospermopsin is centered on human health risks and other environmental effects and still on bioaccumulation. This is regrettable given that Cylindrospermopsin is increasing in importance and bioaccumulation has significant impacts to human and ecological health risks (Humpage 2008). With no further research, synthetic risk assessments are roughly certain undervaluing the general risks of toxin-containing blooms. The study narrows down to effects of cylindrospermopsin in mammalian species, or their end organs and cells. It expands to toxicity model in order to show cylindrospermopsin impacts to invertebrates, bacteria, phytoplankton and protozoans as it seek to identify the substantial variability in toxicity of cylindrospermopsin in different animal models and animals of the same species. An outstanding summary of this research progress in connection to mechanism of toxicity of cylindrospermopsin . Generally, toxin exposure is characterized by delayed toxicity involving multiple organ systems mainly the kidney and liver. Toxicity is interceded by protein synthesis together with genotoxicity by DNA fragmentation. According to Weinreb (2001) it is clear that metabolic activation of cylindrospermopsin is connected to intense toxicity though the exact way on this remains oblique. Amusingly, it how cylindrospermopsin behaves, it also provides protection to exposed species (Eaglesham et al, 2001). Illustratively, cylindrospermopsin is unique to other algal toxins acting as causative agents to fresh waters toxin blooms being characterized by premature births, reduction in size and increase in mortality especially in mice pups. It is also a latent of endocrine INTRODUCTION Cylindrospermopsin (cyanobacteria, blue-green algae) are non-nucleated in nature and characterized as membrane – bound organelles without sexual reproduction but having an advanced ability to synthesize ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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