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Phrmaceutical Formulation - Essay Example

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An emerging technology in the field of pharmaceutical in which prescription is passed through the lungs by the process of inhalation and enters the bloodstream through alveolar epithelium is known as pulmonary drug delivery…
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Phrmaceutical Formulation
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Download file to see previous pages It has a wide range of applications, like, levosalbutamol inhalers have been designed to help in the treatment of asthma. Pulmonary drug delivery can be used to administer a vaccine like in the case of currently inhaled measles vaccine given by nebilizer. (Molema, 2001 pg 16) Also it can be used to give medication to infants and young children who have a small tidal volume and low inspiratory flow rates by the use of a baby mask which normally is attached to spacer. (Perry, 2012 pg 25)It has been used to treat lung cancer by the means of inhaled chemotherapy which has proven to be a logical approach and also it is used on patients who are very ill who cannot withstand any more pain by inhaling opioids such as morphine and fentanyl. (Sigmund, 2009 pg10) Drugs used in pulmonary drug delivery have multi-component powders with mucoactive compounds and anti-asthmatic medicines bound together in a single particle because of the mucus layer covering the airways of the tracheobronchial structure. (Friebel, 2010 pg 20)The substances used in the inhalers must dissolve 100% so as not to block the air gaps to avoid suffocation. (Le, 2001 pg 37) Been affected by the rapid change of technology due to great inventions pharmaceutical industries had to do some research to come up with more efficient drug delivery system like drug powder inhalers. (Zeng, 2001 pg 8) Although drug powder inhalers has greatly boosted the pharmaceutical companies there are challenges that are experienced during its formulation like the cohesive ,adhesive property of drug and carrier aggregation, particle size , morphology of the drug and carrier aerosolization performance and powder formulation properties. (Koning, 2001 pg 40)One of the challenges in pharmaceutical industries is to characterize their various physical behaviors; here the concern is mainly focused on the study of the relations relating the properties of the grain to those of the powder bed. (Wang, 2012 pg 44)The goal is thus to be able to control, analyze and improve the manufacturing processes of the powder. (Talton, 1999 pg 60) To improve the aerosolization performance of drug powder inhalers, varieties of carrier and carrier types have to be sampled and studied so as to come up with the best, and the drug ratios are prepared by spray-drying so as to improve the efficiency of the drying procedure and the characterized at last. Again to improve aerosolization two critical physical properties which are the particle size and flowability has to be keenly observed where the particle size should be around 5-6  µm and the angle of repose to be within the ranges of 43°–52° for the flowability to boost the aerosolization. If this is done well the aerosolization performances can be improve greatly. Cohesion forces of particles used in dry powder formulation is a great nuisance to inhalers because it reduces powder flow and hinders accurate metering hence needs to reduce it and this can be achieved by blending the active pharmaceutical ingredient with a larger inert carrier so as to reduce the high cohesion forces that are normally between the micron sized active pharmaceutical ingredient particles. Adhesion forces are also of great concern in dry powder inhalers because if not catered for they make the patient to find it difficult to deliver the drug from the inhaler to his or her system hence it must be overcome or reduced by great magnitude so as to allow liberation of drug from the device with minimal energy from the patient. The particle size is a challenge in drug powder inhalation ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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