The cylindrospermopsin alkaloids - Literature review Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Summary
The Cylindrospermopsin Alkaloids: Growth, Isolation, Analysis and Purification Professor Institution Introduction Cylindrospermopsin alkaloids refer to a combination of three water soluble toxins; Cylindrospermopsin (CYN), 7-epi- cylindrospermopsin and 7-deoxy-cylindrospermopsin produced by different cyanobacteria species…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER98.4% of users find it useful
The cylindrospermopsin alkaloids
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample
"The cylindrospermopsin alkaloids"

Download file to see previous pages CYN is a natural toxin which is usually produced by certain cyanobacteria species majorly Cylindrospermopsin raciborskii and Umezakia natans among others (Masten 2000). The presence of CYN in drinking or recreational water poses a serious environmental and health risk. CYN was initially isolated in 1992 following a suspected outbreak in Palm Island; Australia. Since its isolation and classification, various techniques have been used to isolate, detect, analyze and purify Cylindrospermopsin (Moore, Ohtani and Runnegar 1992). Some of the common techniques include; High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with Photodiode Array Detector (HPLC-PDA), Enzyme Linked Immuno-sorbent Assay (ELISA), NMR/Mass Spectrometry (MS), filtration and adsorption techniques among others Masten 2000). This paper shall describe how to grow CYN using bioreactor, analysis using ELISA and HPLC, purification of CYN and analysis using NMR/MS. Detection of Cylindrospermopsin in surface water is important since it acts as the major source of drinking and recreational water for a large percentage of people throughout the world. The Cylindrospermopsins should be constantly removed from water to prevent contamination from toxins which are known to cause hepatotoxicity among other toxic effects (Fastner et al. 2003).Cylindrospermopsin is produced by various cyanobacteria species commonly known as blue-green-algae which are mostly found in fresh water. Some variants of Cylindrospermopsin raciborskii commonly found in U.S., Australia and Hungary, Umezakia natans isolated in Japan and Aphanizomenon ovalisporum found in Israel and Australia produce Cylindrospermopsin (Fastner et al. 2003). Human poisoning which occurs through ingestion of water or food contaminated with Cylindrospermopsin producing strains is the most common problem associated with the toxins. It has been suggested that toxicity by Cylindrospermopsins is majorly mediated through inhibition of protein synthesis which causes loss of liver functioning leading to death of cells. Use of a bioreactor in growing CYN Bioreactors can be used in the growth and isolation of CYN due to their ability to allow controlled growth of the organism under specific conditions. A bioreactor can be used to characterize CYN in terms of its relative biological and chemical components while allowing reproducible generation of the target compound. Bioreactors enable the proliferation of the CYN cells by controlling the environment under which the cells are cultured. Typically, a bioreactor for CYN should alloy control of certain environmental conditions that favor the growth of the organism. Using a bioreactor, conditions like oxygen concentration, temperature, stress and PH as well as sterility are maintained during the procedure (McMahon et al. 2008). The proliferation of CYN cells is also facilitated by the availability of essential nutrients alongside the removal of harmful toxins that can inhibit the growth of the cells. Bioreactors enable different operations to be undertaken including fed-batch, batch and continuous cultivation (Choo et al. 2007). Continuous perfusion allows the growth of CYN cells under stable and controlled environmental situations. Isolation of CYN using charcoal filtration method Studies have demonstrated that CYN can be isolated successfully through adsorption techniques utilizing various sediments. Powdered Activated Charcoal (PAC) has been found effective in removing CYN from ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“The cylindrospermopsin alkaloids Literature review”, n.d.)
Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/chemistry/1398540-the-cylindrospermopsin-alkaloids
(The Cylindrospermopsin Alkaloids Literature Review)
https://studentshare.org/chemistry/1398540-the-cylindrospermopsin-alkaloids.
“The Cylindrospermopsin Alkaloids Literature Review”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/chemistry/1398540-the-cylindrospermopsin-alkaloids.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document
CHECK THESE SAMPLES - THEY ALSO FIT YOUR TOPIC
The Cylindrospermopsin Alkaloids
19 Pages(4750 words)Literature review
Cylyndrospermospis (CYN) Algae
...or growths of cyanobacteria in water bodies and reservoirs that act as a source of food poses a potential risk on the quality of water since many species are able to produce secondary metabolites that can be toxic or impart unfriendly odors and taste. Cylindrospermopsin, a strong cytotoxic alkaloid produced by various has gained increasing responsiveness following its insinuation as the causative agent of mass human intoxication and numerous livestock mortalities. In many circumstances the toxicity is sub-lethal to these aquatic organisms, which allows them to survive long enough and accumulate toxins hence transferring them along a food chain. It is likely that Cylindrospermopsin concentration in...
20 Pages(5000 words)Essay
Synthetic studies towards the marine natural product cylindrospermopsin the causative agent in freshwater toxic blooms
...? Synthetic studies towards the marine natural product cylindrospermopsin; the causative agent in freshwater toxic blooms Cylindrospermopsinin (C YN) is gradually being recognized as of the most global importance of the freshwater algal toxins. The rapid increase in CYN producers in temperate zones is yielding concern on the impact of this toxin to human, as well as environmental risk and health risks across the contents. Since 2000, there are several studies that have demonstrated the capacity for Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) to bio-accummulate especially in freshwater organism. This report synthesizes the current information on Cylindrospermopsin accumulation embracing information on the global...
6 Pages(1500 words)Literature review
The Opium Poppy: Blessing and Curse
...? Biology {Unit – of of The opium poppy: blessing and curse Opium refers to an additive narcotic drug that contains alkaloids such as papaverine, codeine, and morphine. Preparation of opium requires the dried latex of green seedpods of the opium poppy as the raw material (Szablewicz, 2010). Opium poppy has a complex history as it has brought great problems, as well as great benefits to the human society (Lee et al., 2011). This is, probably, among the earliest medicinal plants that human beings had discovered. In the present day, cultivation of opium poppy takes place in many countries worldwide, notably Turkey, Poland, Holland, Romania, Iran, Afghanistan, Canada, just to mention a few. This discussion will consider both the...
3 Pages(750 words)Research Proposal
Ylindrospermopsin Alkaloids
...? CHEMISTRY PAPER HYPOTHESES: The incidence of cylindrospcermopsin is very common in many countries worldwide and exclusively in fresh water bodies. The reason why researchers are so interested in this phenomenon is because of its biological aspect which includes a wide array of disruption and toxic levels of metabolic pathways. Another aspect of this compound which is of measurable interest to our research group is its isolation, as possibility for the alteration of the natural product in order to increase accessibility towards finding a more precise and even therapeutic activity is of a great degree. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The continuing research under the discipline of synthetic chemistry on the cylindrospermopsin...
10 Pages(2500 words)Research Paper
Asymmetric Synthesis
...THE SIGNIFICANT RELATIONSHIP OF THE CATALYTIC ASYMMETRIC SYNTHESIS OF CINCHONA ALKALOIDS TO ITS INDUSTRIAL USES With man's present need to acquire significant instruments for the effective asymmetric synthesis of compound organic molecules, the study of catalytic asymmetric synthesis has become an important aspect of organic chemistry. Generally, popular catalysts which are usually used by organic chemists utilize transition metals in order to trigger a chemical reaction in the presence of a chiral ligand (Noyori, 1994.) However, as modern chemistry continues to discover catalytic systems which are organic, the popularity of cinchona alkaloids has become a famous catalyst as compared to other organic catalysts...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay
Literature and Laboratory Skills
...LITERATURE AND LABORATORY SKILLS Chemistry Thesis 20 November Table of Contents Poster 1 1.2 Hypothesis 2 2.1 Background Information 3 2.2 Objectives of the research 7 2.3 Materials and Experimental Conditions 7 2.4 Specific Aspects 9 2.4.1 Isolation of CYN using charcoal filtration method 9 2.5 Breaking the topic into manageable bits 11 2.7 References 12 1 Poster 1.1 Abstract Cylindrospermopsins consists of three water soluble alkaloids produced by cyanobacteria. They have known toxicological properties and cause several illnesses. Recent studies reveal that cylindrospermopsin alkaloids are present in large quantities in nearly all regions globally particularly in water...
5 Pages(1250 words)Thesis
Pharmacognosy
...diverse range of properties that include medicinal properties, sweetness and bitterness, pharmacological and hemolytic properties, therefore, finding a variety of application in beverages and confectionery, also in pharmaceutical products as hormone synthesis. Examples of the plants containing saponin include Quillaja saponaria, Glycine max, Dioscorea villosa, Sapindus, and Gynostemma pentaphyllum. They provide good examples of sources of nutrition and traditional medicine, nd has gained interest mainly from the medical community due to their high concentration of saponins (GANG, p. 14-16). Q2 Alkaloids are alkaline nitrogen containing heterocyclic compounds derived from higher plants and exhibiting marked pharmacological...
6 Pages(1500 words)Assignment
The Chemical Detection of Cocaine-Contaminated Currency
...technique is termed as mass spectrophotometry. A technique avails information of the make-up of the particular constituents of the compound on the note. The combination of these two methods is called GC/MS (Acheson, 1991). The method aids in the investigation of cocaine. Cocaine is a banned substance, hence, law enforcers have to ensure that they find the means of how to detect cocaine in clients if any. According to Acheson(n.d.), cocaine has been use for long. It contains compounds called alkaloids. They are termed as alkaloids as they are basic in acidic media. As a sample, cocaine is interesting as it is said to give a person the feeling of immense power. It also has its many uses in spite of its illegality....
1 Pages(250 words)Essay
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.
Let us find you another Literature review on topic The cylindrospermopsin alkaloids for FREE!
logo footer
Contact us:
+16312120006
Contact Us Now
FREE Mobile Apps:
  • StudentShare App Store
  • StudentShare Google play
  • About StudentShare
  • Testimonials
  • FAQ
  • Blog
  • Free Essays
  • New Essays
  • Essays
  • Miscellaneous
  • The Newest Essay Topics
  • Index samples by all dates
Join us:
Contact Us