Nobody downloaded yet

Detecting the Cylindrospermopsin using HPLC-PDA and NMR - Assignment Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Summary
The purpose of the present assignment is to evaluate the possibility of detecting and analyzing the cylindrospermopsins using HPLC-PDA and NMR (Nuclear-Magnetic-Resonance) techniques.  HPLC is mainly used for the separation of the compounds…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER96.6% of users find it useful
Detecting the Cylindrospermopsin using HPLC-PDA and NMR
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample
"Detecting the Cylindrospermopsin using HPLC-PDA and NMR"

Download file to see previous pages Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) on the other hand is an analytical technique that uses magnetic nuclei which absorb and re-emit electromagnetic radiations at a specific resonance frequency. This frequency is however dependent on the strength of the magnetic field. The resonance obtained in a magnetic field for any particular compound analyzed is always directly proportional to the strength of the magnetic field. Detection and analysis of cylindrospermopsin using HPLCCylindrospermopsins have few methods of detection compared to the well-known microcystins and saxitoxins. High-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array (HPLC-PDA) has been shown to be a good method for the detection of cylindrospermopsins and its analogs because of their characteristic UV spectra (λmax at 262 nm). The only limitation of this method is that sample purification is necessary because it is normally co-eluted with other contaminants (Welker et al. 2002). Purification of cylindrospermopsin is normally performed using HP-20 resin, which removes most of the ionic components from the fraction.Before the detection of cylindrospermopsins by HPLC, they have to be extracted. Water samples containing the cyanobacterial cells are filtered by glass fiber filters.Extraction procedure The air-dried frozen filter samples should be placed on the borosilicate glass tubes and freeze-thawed twice to obtain maximum recover after which 1.2ml of methanol is added and mixed in the bath ultrasonicator for 15 minutes. The samples should further be ultrasonicated individually for 1 minute and the aliquots of the extracts centrifuged at 10,000 ? g for 10 min after which 500 µl of the supernatants are transferred to borosilicate vials and evaporated to dryness at 40°C under argon. The dried extracts can then be reconstituted in 100 µl of 75% methanol and centrifuged in vials at 10,000 ? g for 10 min or filtered through the HPLC grade filter. Before running the HPLC, the HPLC system should be set up as described in the manufacturer’s instructions including degassing, priming and changing columns. The column oven should be set at 40?C and the HPLC changed gradually to starting conditions. The chromatogram samples and standards should be set as per the recommended HPLC gradients using 10 ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“Detecting the Cylindrospermopsin using HPLC-PDA and NMR Assignment”, n.d.)
Detecting the Cylindrospermopsin using HPLC-PDA and NMR Assignment. Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/chemistry/1457468-cylindrospermopsin
(Detecting the Cylindrospermopsin Using HPLC-PDA and NMR Assignment)
Detecting the Cylindrospermopsin Using HPLC-PDA and NMR Assignment. https://studentshare.org/chemistry/1457468-cylindrospermopsin.
“Detecting the Cylindrospermopsin Using HPLC-PDA and NMR Assignment”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/chemistry/1457468-cylindrospermopsin.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document
CHECK THESE SAMPLES - THEY ALSO FIT YOUR TOPIC
The Cylindrospermopsin Alkaloids
...sulfate caused the lysis of the cyanobacterial cells with further release of the toxins into the drinking water. The toxin was also found in Poland (Kokocinski, et al., 2009), however, the cyanobacteria responsible for its synthesis was not reported. There are cases where it was possible to isolate the toxin without detecting its source (Bogialli, et at., 2006) or identify more than one source of cylindrospermopsin (Fastner, et al., 2007) contamination. IV. Detection Techniques Both Cylindrospermopsin (1) and producing it cyanobacteria can be found worldwide. This fact highlights the importance of finding reliable techniques of c cylindrospermopsin...
19 Pages(4750 words)Literature review
Detecting Circulating Tumor Cells using Flow Cytometry
...? Detecting Circulating Tumor Cells (CTC) using Flow Cytometry Introduction The research field was on Flow Cytometry. It aimed to establish a reliable method for counting Circulating Tumor Cells (CTC) using flow Cytometry. Flow Cytometry is a method of enumerating and examining minute particles suspended in a fluid when passed through an electronic detector. The system has a disposable chip. This chip checks for cross contamination collect analyzed sample and to freely measurement. CTC is salient biomarkers for so many cancers. There are many systems for enumeration based on either EpCAM/CD326 which express tumor cell before microscope or RT-PCR. Protocols for this system can be applied...
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay
PDA SIM Strategies
...DIAGNOSIS AND SIMULATION PDA SIM STRATEGIES TOURO INTERNATIONAL CURTIS L.BERGERON, JR. BUS599 SLP 2 "DIAGNOSIS AND SIMULATION PDA SIM STRATEGIES" DR. DEBRA LOUIS Introduction The obsolescence rate of PDA hardware is one of the highest among other equipments used in current technologies. According to Moore's Law, the speed of microprocessors is increased by two times what it was after about eighteen months. Therefore, sustenance of hardware investments tends to be tainted with uncertainty, especially in the context of most developing economies, where returns on this type of investments might not be immediately forthcoming. Therefore, I think that the...
3 Pages(750 words)Assignment
PDA Sim
...PDA SIM Run Number Strategy In establishing a price and R&D strategy for the PDAs, it is first necessary to analyze the existing lineup. The X5 increased market share last year by 83%. The market share is currently 31% and the goal is to sell an additional 2 million units this year. The product has not reached saturation point even though it has been on the market for 3 years. It may be entering a mature stage where new R&D money would not be returned in revenue. Since the X5 appeals to the consumer base that shops for price, the strategy will involve cutting back on R&D spending on the X5 and lowering the price to garner more market share. The X6 is the high end product in its second year of...
5 Pages(1250 words)Essay
PDA Slim 4
...the product out of the market since its existence was detrimental to the cumulative profits of the company. The profits I achieved during this round amounted to $194 million of which the X6 contributed $107 million, while the X5 provided $87 million. In the third round of this simulation I noticed that the internal information provided by the advisors of handheld became more useful and insightful. I would imagine the reason the information became more useful is that the management of the company now had more time to concentrate of their efforts in a more simplified strategy since more time could be spend in analyzing each product now. For example for the X6 the advisor told me that the customers pay...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay
PDA SIM
...HandHeld Corporation is the company showcased in the PDA Simulation. The firm has three product lines and as the company’s the CEO the player has to make operating decisions to improve the profitability of the company. The goal of public corporations is to maximize shareholder’s wealth (Weygandt & Kieso & Kimmel, 2000, p.569). My original strategy during the first round involved analyzing the products the business offers in order to make decisions based on qualitative and quantitative criteria. I analyzed the product life cycle of the three primary products the company offers. Determining a product’s lifecycle can enable a manager to make decisions of whether to invest more in a project or discontinue an operation. The...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay
Detecting Bias
...English 306 Detecting Bias Assignment Some people argue that bias destroys the passage written and denies the other side of the picture completely. However, this is not true for all writers and contexts. Bias helps us in building our views and opinions about certain issue or individual. A biased statement does not necessarily stops us from thinking ahead but provides people with a chance to accept or refute that point of view. Biased statements help us in thinking, analyzing and examining certain claims which may or may not be true in our opinion. This paper aims to analyze the article written by Catherine Porter and titled as “Lessons of the Montreal Massacre: Why women...
2 Pages(500 words)Assignment
Detecting Plagiarism
...CheckPoint: Detecting Plagiarism The article submitted by the showed a 100% similarity index because it was directly copy pasted by the student to break the rules of the university. Checking the results of the plagiarism checker would help me to know the exact source of the paper. I can then conclude about the efforts that the student has put into the assignment. With a 100% similarity index it can be known that the student did not put any effort into the assignment and just copy pasted it right away. As a faculty member my first line of action would be to formally ask the student for an explanation for such a dishonest act. In my view the student cannot provide an explanation for such an act and he would have to be reported...
1 Pages(250 words)Essay
Lab report (Using NMR)
...Lab report using NMR al affiliation) The aim of the experiment is to determine the structure of C10H18O molecule through utilization of the NMR spectrum which has proved to a significant utility in elucidation of molecular structure since the properties displayed can be associated with the chemical perception of the molecular structure. The chemical shift targeting each nucleus can be correlated to the chemical environment with the scalar coupling showing an indirect interaction between the individual nuclear that are mediated by the electrons found in the chemical bond and appropriate conditions, the number of the nuclei are related to the area of the resonance. Hydrogen molecule found...
4 Pages(1000 words)Lab Report
NMR
...NMR determination of Keto-Enol Equilibrium constant Introduction NMR has been very effective in organic chemistry. Indetermining Keto-Enol equilibrium constant, Proton NMR spectroscopy is used to evaluating a number of keto-mixtures. The spin-spin splitting and the chemical shift pattern are employed. The equilibrium constant is affected by both temperature and solvent. Material and methods The NMR spectrometer is used. Several milliliters of acetylacetone (CH3OCH2COCH3) and ethyl acetoacetate (CH3CH2OCOCH2COCH3) together with two solvents are used in the experiment. The two solvents represent a non-polar and polar...
1 Pages(250 words)Lab Report
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.
Let us find you another Assignment on topic Detecting the Cylindrospermopsin using HPLC-PDA and NMR for FREE!
logo footer
Contact us:
+16312120006
Contact Us Now
FREE Mobile Apps:
  • StudentShare App Store
  • StudentShare Google play
  • About StudentShare
  • Testimonials
  • FAQ
  • Blog
  • Free Essays
  • New Essays
  • Essays
  • Miscellaneous
  • The Newest Essay Topics
  • Index samples by all dates
Join us:
Contact Us