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Morpholins anti-cancer drugs - Dissertation Example

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The aim of the present research was to analyze the effect of introducing a variety of functional groups to morpolins, aiming at designing more selective/potent β-D-galactosidase inhibitors…
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Download file to see previous pages They produced morpoline derivatives which included both esters and N-alkyl derivatives. The target compounds were characterised using H1, C13NMR, IR and were studied as inhibitors of β-D-galactosidase extracted from Bovine kidney. The activity of this enzyme is associated with a variety of diseases therefore the produced morpholine derivatives have potential medical applications. p-nitrophenyl-β–D-galactopyranoside was chosen as a substrate for the enzymatic cleavage of the carbon-oxygen bond which is catalysed by β-D-galactosidase. During the process p-nitrophenol was released in the environment, the compound had the ability to absorb light in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum, therefore, it was possible to estimate its quantity using the Beer–Lambert–Bouguer law. By measuring the quantity of the produced p-nitrophenol at set time intervals conclusions were drawn regarding the reaction speed and, consequently, about inhibition properties of the studied morpoline derivative. The reaction was followed by Michaelis-Menten kinetics, therefore reaction speed was calculated using the most linear fragment in the dependence between absorption and time. Because the enzyme was denatured, its inhibitory properties were not tested and are a subject for future work.
Cell’s surface is composed of lipids, carbohydrates and proteins. Compared to other surface molecules glycolipids and glycoproteins are the longest. For this reason they are often take part in interactions with substrates or other cells, consequently carbohydrates are of paramount importance in cellular interactions and disease processes such as cancer, infections or inflammations. ...
The compound can covalently attach to serine or threonine. The process leads to formation of clusters in which one monosaccharide is linked to one amino acid. The produced clusters are often the ideal targets for antitumor antibodies. Such antibodies can be generated by glycopeptides linked to clustered sialyted epitopes. The effectiveness of which is usually higher then single sialyted epitopes (Butters, et al., 2003). Glycosidases classification is based on the similarities in the sequence of their amino acids (Table 1) (Henrissat and Bairoch, 1993; Henrissat, 1991). Enzymes within the same group share the same structural features and perform their functions using the same mechanism (Rye and Withers, 2000) Usually, there are two mechanisms employed by enzymes to cleave glycosidic bonds. As a result, a free hydroxyl group is formed with retention or inversion of configuration (Scheme 1)(Sinnott, 1990; Zechel and Withers, 2000; Vasella, et al., 2002). In the mechanism (a) glycosidases cleave the required bonds using asparagine and glutamine 6A apart from each other. One carboxylic group is deprotonated an acts as a base by abstracting a proton from water during the formation of the intermediate (Withers and Umezawa, 2001; Davies, et al., 2005; Hoj, et al., 1992). Table 1. Type of carbohydrate-active enzyme and its function Carbohydrate-active enzyme Abbreviation Function Carbohydrate Esterases CE Carbohydrate esters hydrolysis Polysaccharide Lyases PL Non-hydrolytic cleavage of glycoside bonds GlycosylTransferases GT Glycosidic bonds formation Glycoside Hydrolases GH Glycosidic bonds rearrangement or hydrolysis The remaining carboxylic group protonates the oxygen atom from the anomeric centre and assists in its removal. Both bond formation and ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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