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Managerial Decision Making - Essay Example

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Power obviously is a pervasive variable in the managerial process of all modern-day organizations.(Kanter, 1979) Managers regularly acquire and utilize power to achieve specific work results and to strengthen their own personal position within the organization. Logically, it…
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Managerial Decision Making
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First Last NUMBER Managing the Three R’s Power obviously is a pervasive variable in the managerial process of all modern-day organizations.(Kanter, 1979) Managers regularly acquire and utilize power to achieve specific work results and to strengthen their own personal position within the organization. Logically, it can be rationalized that every interaction and every social relationship in an organization involves some direct exercise of power. The process of how power is utilized in most organizations can best be summed up by the three R’s of management: retribution, reciprocity, and reason.(Schermerhorn, 1985)
Retribution: The first R is by far the most detrimental; the managerial application of retribution is little more than threatening. Managers in some situations resort to direct threats of punishment to create coercion. They may also utilize indirect threat’s to create an implied rather than stated punishment or coercion; this is a common form of intimidation. The major pros to utilizing retribution are the immediate effect and delivery of the manager’s task as specified. On the Con side retribution almost always creates resistance, resentment, & alienation. It also within the organization stifles innovation. Effective managers should very rarely resort to retribution as a tool; it should be reserved for crisis situations where direct action is required.
Reciprocity: By definition reciprocity is nothing more than compliance by satisfying the needs of both parties. Reciprocity allows the manager to get results without creating resentment. The major pros revolve around mutual benefit. This enables the manager to achieve objectives without having to bargain or justify the objective with the employee. The Cons are the very basic prerequisite of trust and the inevitable negotiation process with the employee. From the stand point of the organization reciprocity undercuts group commitment. From the management standpoint it takes time to initialize and cannot be used effectively in a crisis situation.
Reason: Reason creates a rational articulation of the management concept; subordinates recognize the value of the plan and are more supportive and positive about the manager’s task. The pros are seen as a higher group compliance and greater commitment to team principle. While reason is the most positive management tool it takes the longest period to initialize and requires the cohesion of a unified group trust and belief in the individual manager. Superiors usually rate managers that utilize reason as highly effective. Unfortunately, reason cannot easily be applied to most mundane job tasks as the amount of input does not justify the output. Reason is the preferred managerial tool for long term strategic tasks and projects.
In conclusion, managerial success translates into stronger power bases with greater opportunities to lead through the exercise of power. Conversely, power misuse and abuse consistently lead’s to heighten and unproductive diversity and strain that destroys team cohesion. (Kanter, 1979) Effective managers understand and utilize the three R’s to achieve the optimum level of productivity without generating heightened friction with their employees.
Works Cites
Rosabeth Moss Kanter, Power Failure in Management Circuits, Harvard Business Review, July–August 1979, 65.
John R. Schermerhorn Jr., James G. Hunt, and Richard N. Osborn, Managing Organizational Behavior (New York: John Wiley and Sons,1985), 445. Read More
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