Impact of Climate Change on a New Zealand Business - Case Study Example

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The author of this case study "Impact of Climate Change on a New Zealand Business" comments on the climate change which is also described as global warming that refers to increases in the average temperature of the earth’s oceans and the air near the surface…
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Impact of Climate Change on a New Zealand Business
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Download file to see previous pages According to Pewter Center (2011), agricultural production could increase with only minor warming in northern countries (e.g., the USA and Canada) and is already on the decline in low latitude countries. However, climate change will have a negative effect on agricultural production everywhere with higher levels of warming which are caused by changes in precipitation (Pewter Center 2011). Scientists warn the expected impacts of climate change will include rising temperatures, sea-level rise, changing rainfall patterns and increased storminess (MFE, n.d.).  Climate change is expected to cause more frequent extreme weather events such as droughts and floods. In New Zealand, we are likely to see an increase in temperature of over 1C by 2050 and of over 2?C (compared with 1990 levels) by the end of the century. There are likely to be fewer frost days in winter and more hot days in summer (MFE, n.d.).  The greatest consequence of climate change, however, is the passage of the Cap and Trade.
A cap and trade system is a market-based approach to controlling pollution that allows corporations or national governments to trade emissions allowances under an overall cap, or limit, on those emissions such as Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) is one of the methods. The ETS came into effect in 2008 where the initial area dealt with was forestry. The increased trade which has resulted from globalization has contributed significantly to climate change. At the last Climate Change conference held in Kyoto, Copenhagen approximately 40 industrialized countries signed an agreement to meet emission reduction targets by 2012 relative to 1990 levels. One of these countries was New Zealand. Developing countries are not expected to have reduction targets at this point.
Consequences
Despite the benefits of globalization, there have been economic and social consequences. According to WTO (2008) globalization relates to international integration in commodity, capital, and labor markets. Globalization results from the expansion of the industrial development model. This model is based on the intensive use of fuels for energy in order to facilitate drive production and distribution of goods. Climate change is a consequence of oil-based economies. In addition to the high methane and nitrous oxide levels, the use of fuel in dairy production and transportation of goods is also a reason for the emissions-intensive nature of Fonterra’s business specifically and for the New Zealand economy in general. The world is going green and this will affect Fonterra’s competitiveness.
According to Skilling and Boven (2007), climate change has gone beyond the process of being a minor issue to being at the core of debates across the world. Climate change will result in social and economic consequences globally. The Kyoto agreement will effectively mean an additional cost to businesses and consumers. New Zealand government made plans and attempted to introduce a carbon tax to regulate the greenhouse gas emissions. This type of tax schemes may adversely affect many industries; especially the dairy industry. The implementation of a carbon tax will mean that the cost of externalities will be included in the cost of the products. This is as a result of the emission producing methane from livestock, carbon dioxide from energy used in the production of products like cheese, butter, and other dairy products as well as fuel used in the transportation of these items by road and sea will be included in their cost. ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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