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Austrian Economics - Research Paper Example

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1. Austrian Economics Contemporary Austrian economics has nothing much to do with Austria. Carl Menger (1976) shed some light on the dynamics of Austrian economics in his book: ‘Principles of Economics’. The first objective in Menger’s mind was to fix the theory of production cost value due to which the classical economics had been inflicted since Adam Smith…
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Download file to see previous pages The second prime objective of Menger was to prove that this explanation of commodity-price-formation is not only general but also abstract. The purpose of this explanation was also to correct the German Historical School, which suggests that there are no such universal economic laws that are applicable across different cultures, times and nations. They rejected the “Manchester School’s” requisition on global free trade in view of the universal relevance of the comparative edge (Mises, 1969). Menger being a supporter the rich empirical research of the historicists debated that the economic goods’ properties are based on the general theoretical investigation. He also dedicated his book to Wilhelm Roscher who was a renowned historicist. The Historical School’s younger members did not support Menger’s argument. The subsequent argument to this — characterized the methodenstreit or dispute over procedures — followed that the historicists started to refer Menger and his supporters as the “Austrian School,” that signifies their mediocrity in comparison to the genuinely German approach (Bostaph, 1994; Caldwell, 2004; Mises, 1969). Although the Historical School applied adequate impact on the German Universities and thereby, took them to the twentieth century however it is the insights of the Austrian School that marked an impact on the remaining professions in other parts of the world. The discussions by Menger in relation to subsiding marginal utility, scarcity, and Robinson Crusoe economies were naturally knitted into the surfacing marginalist consensus. Similarly, the students of Menger, Friedrich Wieser and Eugen Bohm-Bawerk made significant contributions to the principle concept, Wieser for introducing the terminology “opportunity cost” and Bohm-Bawerk for his coining the time preference discussion (White, 2003). The Austrians had differences with the others, particularly when Marshall reestablished the production-cost-concept as one blade of a pair of scissors that evaluate price whereas the marginal utility being the other blade of these scissors. However, these were just minor disputes under a wider consensus. Although both F.A. Hayek and Ludwig von Mises followed the tradition of Menger however by the time they were internationally recognized they were just economists and did not require any “Austrian” label. Since that point of time, the “Austrian School” simply became a term of historical significance. Nevertheless, the affiliation with the mainstream of the profession continued. The argument related to socialist calculation disclosed the deep, fundamental gulf that distinguishes the Austrians from the neoclassical orthodoxy, which commenced, in 1920, with the publication of “Economic Calculation in the Socialist Commonwealth” by Mises (1935). According to Mises, the socialist planners, without money prices, would miss-out a common denominator for calculating the effectiveness of alternative uses of resources and hence, would be unable to get involved in rational economic calculation. The socialist-economists retorted with the market socialism theory, the concept that the socialist planners could employ the centrally controlled accounting prices and systems of equations as an alternate for market exchange. Hayek and Mises retorted by pointing out that the market socialists basically misinterpreted the issue, but to no benefit. All Professional ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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