This essay focuses on the importance of theoretical perspectives in explaining anarchy and examines the role of cooperation in controlling anarchy. Considering examples of health issues and other global issues, the exact relationship between cooperation and anarchy would be discussed…
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Inayatullah (1997) provided a theoretical perspective on anarchy and cooperation suggesting that neo-realism tends to rely on a negative interpretation on the theory of spontaneous order. Inyataullah suggests that institutions which emerge spontaneously tend to show some form of design thus design and human reflexivity indicate an overlap of intentions and outcomes. But how would a theory of order or disorder relate to international relations and where in the discourse can we place anarchy and cooperation as necessary concepts to define IR? As Inayatullah suggests, the study of intended actions is an essential part of international relations theory and outcomes of IR focus on ‘values’ underlying theory and practice. Possibly this is where anarchy and cooperation become important within international relations. Weber points out that the institutional choices of different countries tend to focus on economic theories of organization emphasizing on cooperative security concepts with elements of bindingness. He suggests that the hierarchical security structures in the international system remain unexplained and hierarchy is usually explained amidst anarchy. In a similar study, Malcolm (2002) took a different view on the concept of anarchy and its portrayal in international relations study. Hobbes’ theory of international relations, for instance, has been branded as realist considering that the international system is in complete anarchy where no law could be possibly applied and any acts of violence would remain justified....
In a similar study, Malcolm (2002) took a different view on the concept of anarchy and its portrayal in international relations study. Hobbes' theory on international relations for instance has been branded as realist considering that the international system is in complete anarchy where no law could be possibly applied and any acts of violence would remain justified. However Malcolm seems to go against the traditional interpretation of Hobbes' realistic viewpoints and suggests that Hobbes' theory does make provisions for international law showing why international cooperation is essential within the necessities of an international system. Malcolm's interpretations of Hobbes could be closer to Rationalist theories although he does point out that Hobbes' theory was a natural law theory that in more compatible with realism than rationalism.
Fidler (2003) points out to the importance of public health in world politics and international relations and the role of health concepts to define anarchy and cooperation among nations and individuals. He suggests that issues of public health have become increasingly important in recent years due to the growing health problems in many developing countries and the rise of epidemics and HIV/AIDS. There are also heightened tensions between public health and international trade as associated with patents and access to essential medicines for incurable or fatal diseases. There has been recent discussion on placing public health higher on global diplomatic agendas although there are issues and speculations on how the pursuit of public health could be better at a global scale and could be successfully organised and implemented. Public health issues have triggered a level pf global
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