We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.
Nobody downloaded yet

On the debates pertaining to inference of an effect from its cause - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Summary
On the debates pertaining to inference of an effect from its cause David Hume held that there are three conditions for inferring cause: 1) contiguity between the effect and the cause; 2) precedence of the cause in relation with the effect; and 3) constant presence of the cause whenever the effect is obtained (Cook and Campbell 1979, p…
Download full paper
GRAB THE BEST PAPER
On the debates pertaining to inference of an effect from its cause
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample
On the debates pertaining to inference of an effect from its cause

Download file to see previous pages... 172). Taking off from Hume, John Stuart Mill “held that causal inference depends on three factors: first, the cause has to precede the effects; second, the cause and effect have to be related ; and third, other explanations of the cause-effect relationship have to be eliminated” (Cook and Campbell 1979, p. 182). In other words, the notion of causation and effect that can be found in the ideas of John Stuart Mill is that causation requires precedence of the cause from the effect, correlation, and that rival hypotheses are ruled out. For Cook and Campbell (1979), however, the most significant contribution of John Stuart Mill to the theory of causality pertains to his notions of the criteria, principles, or “methods” of agreement, differences, and concomitant variation. The principle of agreement “states that an effect will be present when the cause is present” (Cook and Campbell 1979, p. 182). The principle of difference “states that the effect will be absent when the cause is absent” (Cook and Campbell 1979, p. 182). Finally, the principle of concomitant variation “implies that when both of the above relationships are observed, causal inferences will be all stronger since certain other interpretations of the co-variation between the cause effects can be ruled out” (Cook and Campbell 1979, p. 182). According to Cook and Campbell (1979, p. ...
183) pointed out that “the concept of a control group is implicit here and is clearly central in Mill’s thinking about cause.” In 1913, Bertrand Russell “looked to physics and astronomy of his day as the most mature sciences, and he noted their lack of concern with unobservables and explicitness and parsimony of the functional relationships that physicists sought to test” (Cook and Campbell 1979, p. 172-173).1 However, Russell had asked that asked whether the concept of cause continues to be relevant given that cause “is not implied by functional relationships of mathematical form” (Cook and Campbell 1979, p. 173). The Russell viewpoint is positivist “rejecting unobservables (like cause), and seeking to establish explicit functional laws between continuously measured variables in a closed system” (Cook and Campbell 1979, p. 173). Positivists like Russell believe that “causation is unnecessary because it is unobservable” (Cook and Campbell 1979, p. 175). The essentialist viewpoint “argue that the term cause should only be used to refer to variables that explain a phenomenon in the sense that these variables, when taken together, are both necessary and sufficient for the effect to occur” (Cook and Campbell 1979, p. 177). The essentialists “equates cause with a constellation of variables that necessarily, inevitably and infallibly results in the effect” (Cook and Campbell 1979, p. 177). In contrast, those “who restrict cause to observable necessary and sufficient conditions (or sufficient conditions that operate when all the necessary conditions are met) reject as causes those factors which are known to bring about effects sometimes, but not always” (Cook and Campbell 1979, p. 177). ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“On the debates pertaining to inference of an effect from its cause Essay”, n.d.)
Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/business/1397654-research-methodology
(On the Debates Pertaining to Inference of an Effect from Its Cause Essay)
https://studentshare.org/business/1397654-research-methodology.
“On the Debates Pertaining to Inference of an Effect from Its Cause Essay”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/business/1397654-research-methodology.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document
CHECK THESE SAMPLES - THEY ALSO FIT YOUR TOPIC
Cause and Effect
On the other hand, there are those who believe that actually lowering the drinking age to 16 would reduce drinking, as teenagers would be given more autonomy in controlling their drinking habits. Some believe that bars corrupt the minds of the youth and bring down the standards of civil society.
3 Pages(750 words)Essay
Cause and Effect
According to Hobson and Boll (2004), poverty basically refers to the state of living - a very low standard of life, living on less than a dollar or two per day. It is reported that almost every country, developed or underdeveloped, experiences some degree of poverty at some time.
3 Pages(750 words)Essay
Cause and effect
He was driving his car in an intoxicated state above the speed limits of the road. He was caught by the police while breaking the law and ended up in jail. My friend went to a party with his colleagues in a club. While enjoying the party, he did not realize and consumed excessive alcohol.
1 Pages(250 words)Essay
English - Cause and Effect
Causality, which is the actual relationship between cause and effect is applied to refer to the relationship that is there between an event and another one, where the second event is understood to have been as a result of the occurrence of the first one (David, 1975).
3 Pages(750 words)Essay
Cause and effect
This paper will look at both the causes of drug use and the short and long term effects of it in order to better combat the issue. In the large majority of cases, many people turn to drug use
2 Pages(500 words)Essay
Cause/Effect
Parties agree that there is a need for equal sharing of the profits realized by the enterprises and endeavors that the employees participate in.However, there are times when they fail to meet eye to eye in terms of what
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay
Cause/Effect
It is intriguing to learn that fifty five percent of people who use text messages can exchange up to fifty messages on a daily basis, thus they prefer texting to voice calls (Gahran, 1).
2 Pages(500 words)Essay
Cause & Effect ( poverty )
Poverty has many definitions and a poor person may be said to be someone who cannot satisfy his or her necessary needs such as food and shelter
2 Pages(500 words)Essay
Cause & Effect
The involvement and agility inspired by baseball enables Native American teenagers to be more involved in class as well as boost their connection to the school environment. Alexie writes about the life in the mascot
3 Pages(750 words)Essay
Cause & Effect
Perhaps the propensity to revolutions and religious extremism that has rocked the Middle East for years has left more damage than the benefits it has brought (The
1 Pages(250 words)Essay
Let us find you another Essay on topic On the debates pertaining to inference of an effect from its cause for FREE!
Contact us:
+16312120006
Contact Us Now
FREE Mobile Apps:
  • About StudentShare
  • Testimonials
  • FAQ
  • Blog
  • Free Essays
  • New Essays
  • Essays
  • The Newest Essay Topics
  • Index samples by all dates
Join us:
Contact Us