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The Breathing Rates in Standing and Supine Positions - Research Paper Example

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The paper 'The Breathing Rates in Standing and Supine Positions' presents rhythmic patterns analysis which is a tool used in the assessment of the cardiac nervous activity balance. The variation of the heart rate determines the rhythmic patterns used to identify certain medical conditions…
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The Breathing Rates in Standing and Supine Positions
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Download file to see previous pages  The main reason is that they are commonly used positions during manual therapy. A comparison of the supine and standing positions have had a deficiency in terms of research. The study, therefore, aims to redress the deficiency by comparing the breathing rates in standing and supine positions.
The autonomic nervous system help in the unconscious control of important organs like the blood vessels and the heart (Ellis and Thayer, 2010: 317). The autonomic control is due to the thin preganglionic fibers that are lightly myelinated. The fibers originate from the central nervous system at the brainstem level of the sacral spinal cord (parasympathetic case) and lumbar or thoracic spinal cord (sympathetic case). The autonomic nervous system has a profound impact on the heart. The influence is based on its capability to change the cardiac rate that is known as chronotropic. The autonomic nervous system also has the modulation ability of the contraction (inotropy), relaxation (lusitropy) and conduction velocity commonly known as homotopy.
The dromotropic and chronotropic effects are controlled by both sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers from atrioventricular and sinoatrial nodes (Ma et al., 2009: 15950). The lusitropic and inotropic effects are caused mainly by the sympathetic fibers from ventricular and atrial myocytes. The parasympathetic fibers that travel in the vagus nerve produce acetylcholine that activates the receptors (M2 Muscarinic acetylcholine). The receptors in return increase the conductance of the sinoatrial (SA) node and slow the conduction rate in the atrioventricular (AV) node. The effect of this is the slowing of the intrinsic rate of the heart. Sympathetic fibers produce norepinephrine that activates adenylate cyclase through binding with the β- adrenergic receptors. Other effects associated with it are intracellular cAMP increase and activation of PKA.  ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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