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Bacteria Fighting Bacteria - Research Proposal Example

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Clostridium difficile is one of the leading causes of infectious diarrhea in hospitalized patients. Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive, anaerobic, spore-forming, cytotoxin-producing bacillus (Leffler DA et al,…
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Download file to see previous pages et al., 2009). Prevention of this disease mostly revolves around the control of antibiotic use and a comprehensive infection control once the disease appears. Other potential methods to treat this disease include the use of probiotic bacteria and yeast. In the use of probiotic in the treatment of Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) various factors such as safety of the medication and administration of this medication are considered.
CDAD is a severe diarrhea caused C. difficile bacteria. The symptoms of this disease range from mild diarrhea to inflammation of the bowel (pseudo-membranous colitis); this can lead to death of the patient (Bartlett, 2002). The main risk factors for the development of this disease are extensive antibiotic use, been too old and increase hospitalization.
Probiotics are live microorganisms that when they are administered properly they are beneficial to the recipient (FAO/WHO, 2001). Some of bacteria that have positive probiotic effect to patients include Lactobacillus rhammosus GG, Bifidobacterium strains and the yeast Saccharomyces boulardii.
Antibiotics disrupt the normal condition of the microflora found in the stomach. This alters the carbohydrate metabolism and antimicrobial activity leading to osmotic diarrhea that is caused by pathogenic bacteria (Hogenauer et al, 1998). Reduced metabolism of the fermentable carbohydrates leads reduced short-chain fatty acids and increased non-absorbable carbohydrates in the lumen of the gut. The increased osmotic pressure reduces water absorption from the gut leading to a watery stool. Moreover, the protective barrier provided by the normal intestinal microorganisms on the gut is disrupted leading to invasion by pathogens and toxins. These pathogens include C. difficile, Salmonella, Staphloccus aureus and Clostridium perfringens. Toxins lead to mucosal damage and inflammation leading to diarrhea. ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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