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Mitochandria - Dissertation Example

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The essay "Mitochondria" focuses on Mitochondria which are organelles located in the cell and which aid in cellular respiration. The main function of them is to generate energy for the cell through breaking down nutrients. The endosymbiotic theory explains the presence of mitochondria in cells…
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MITOCHONDRIA
Mitochondria are organelles located in the cell and which aid in cellular respiration. While some cells do not contain any trace of mitochondria, others contain thousands. These organelles are not static rather they float all over the cell. Mitochondria are structured in a way that they contain two membranes. The first membrane being the inner membrane contains numerous folds that create a layer known as cristae (Biology4Kids, 2015). The outer membrane, on the other hand, acts as a protective layer that covers the mitochondria. Mitochondria also contain a fluid known as matrix. Inside the matrix are DNA and ribosomes. Ribosomes are protein builders of the cell. Other structures known as granules are also contained in the matrix (Biology4Kids, 2015).
The main function of mitochondria is to generate energy for the cell through breaking down nutrients. Through the help of proteins or enzymes found in the matrix, organic molecules are digested. Consequently, oxygen and glucose are released to aid in the production of water and carbon dioxide hence controlling the amount of oxygen. It is also through the mitochondria that the cell can store and control the concentration of calcium ions. It also aids in the transportation of electrons throughout the cell. The processes of hormonal signalling, as well as the synthesis of steroids, are also made possible through the mitochondria (Biology4Kids, 2015).
The endosymbiotic theory explains the presence of mitochondria in cells (Fossil Museum, n.d.). According to the theory, mitochondria gained a survival advantage through a symbiotic relationship between bacteria and other cells. With time, the cells lost their cell walls, and the flexible membranes began folding to form membranes. Eventually, the relationship became permanent leading to the formation of mitochondria.


References
Biology4Kids. (2015). Mitochondria - Turning on the Powerhouse. Retrieved from http://www.biology4kids.com/files/cell_mito.html.
Fossil Museum. (n.d.). Endosymbiosis - The Appearance of the Eukaryotes. Retrieved from http://www.fossilmuseum.net/Evolution/Endosymbiosis.htm Read More
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