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ENaC and Hypertension - Essay Example

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Hypertension is the abnormal and repeated elevation of blood pressure with systolic pressure above 140 mmHg and diastolic pressure above 90 mmHg [1]. It is termed “silent killer” because it has no warning signs or symptoms, and numerous individuals are not aware they have…
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ENaC and Hypertension
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Download file to see previous pages However, for individuals past the age of 45, the incidences of hypertension rise and affect more women than men [1]. In the U.S. 25% of Americans suffer from hypertension. High blood pressure varies amongst ethnic groups where African Americans have the highest risk for hypertension among Americans. Forty percent of African Americans have hypertension and it is more likely to be manifested at an earlier age than Caucasians. Hypertension is the primary cause of 25% of deaths in America today. Additionally, 47% of individuals with hypertension have blood pressure that is not under control. Most of hypertensives are resistant to common medications. They have to take more than one medication to render their blood pressure stable[3]. The pathogenesis of hypertension remains unknown. Blood pressure must be regulated to prevent damaging of vital organs. From this point, studying the molecular basis and human protein level of this disease is needed for early detection and for distinguishing markers and designing targeting therapy.
The kidneys play a major role in hypertension mainly in the maintenance of sodium balance within the body. They also maintain the balance of the volume of extracellular fluid that leads to the long term control of blood pressure. Therefore, any imbalance in sodium entry expands the blood volume leading to hormonal and vascular change in the kidneys and increasing blood pressure [2].
In relation to the various mechanisms involved in hypertension’s inheritance, two major categories exist. These are Mendelian hypertension and essential hypertension. The Mendelian form of hypertension occurs because of a single or small number of genes which are defective. These can also be either dominant or recessive [4]. In contrast, essential hypertension, which is a heterogeneous disorder of hypertension, is more complex and does not follow the kind of inheritance ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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