Nobody downloaded yet

Ontogenetic change in skull morphology and Mechanical Advantage in the Spotted Hyena (Crocutacrocuta) - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
However, it depends on how well they are adapted to obtaining and processing food materials. For mammals, the young ones feed on milk from their mothers before weaning period when they are introduced to an adult diet. Hyenas are…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER97.8% of users find it useful
Ontogenetic change in skull morphology and Mechanical Advantage in the Spotted Hyena (Crocutacrocuta)
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Ontogenetic change in skull morphology and Mechanical Advantage in the Spotted Hyena (Crocutacrocuta)"

Download file to see previous pages Adult spotted hyena have durophagy adaptations that include large jaw, adductor muscles, simplified and robust dentition, and pronounced sagittal crest. Feeding of weaning hyena was limited by morphology compared to adult resulting from the study of ontogenetic change in the skull and feed apparatus. The study is, therefore, aimed at establishing as whether feeding of young hyena was limited by the skull shape, skull size, and the mechanical advantage of jaw muscles. The study also seeks to enquire if feeding apparatus is slow in the spotted hyena compared with other carnivores not adapted for durophagy.
Various materials and methods were employed during the study. For instant, during sampling, ontogenic series of individuals of age ranging from 2 months to 18 years of 68 spotted hyenas we sampled. Most of the samples were from the southwest of Kenya in Masai Mara Reserve. Their age was estimated depending upon the appearance. On the other hand, to quantify skull changes, ‘2D landmark-based geometric morphometrics was used. Three views of the skull were analyzed that involved lateral cranium, lateral mandibles, and ventral cranium. In the analysis of fused lateral mandible and cranium for adult hyenas, semi-landmarks were used which later digitized by use of ‘tpsDig’. In addition, superimposition was used to remove variations (Holekamp, Lundrigan, Tanner and Zelditch 354).
The analysis of change in ontogenetic shape was done as well as analyzing the relationship between shape and size over a given period (Holekamp, Lundrigan, Tanner and Zelditch 355). The ontogenetic trajectories were determined if they differed significantly. As a result, the sample sizes obtained from a pair of bootstrap used varied with ages. On the other hand, size of the muscle and mechanical advantage was determined first using traditional methods. For instant, size of the adductor muscle was estimated across the zygomatic arches by maximum width. The mechanical advantage was ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“Ontogenetic change in skull morphology and Mechanical Advantage in the Essay”, n.d.)
Ontogenetic change in skull morphology and Mechanical Advantage in the Essay. Retrieved from
(Ontogenetic Change in Skull Morphology and Mechanical Advantage in the Essay)
Ontogenetic Change in Skull Morphology and Mechanical Advantage in the Essay.
“Ontogenetic Change in Skull Morphology and Mechanical Advantage in the Essay”, n.d.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Ontogenetic change in skull morphology and Mechanical Advantage in the Spotted Hyena (Crocutacrocuta)


..., 2009, p.5), French - un ‘grille + pain’ (V +N ) ‘toaster’ (Lit. grill-bread) (Desmets and Villiong, 2009, p.3). d) suppletion: a morphological process whereby an unrelated word is used to fulfill a paradigm - one stem is replaced by another to form an allomorph of a morpheme which is phonologically dissimilar to the other morphemes, ie. go, goes, going, gone + went’ = stem suppletion; ‘ox + en’ and ‘cherub + im’ = affix suppletion. e) conversion: a morphological process whereby a linguistic item becomes another word class without having to add any affix (zero derivation) as in ‘smell’, ‘prize’ and ‘hammer’ which can all be used as a verb or a noun; sometimes involves stress changes, ie....
6 Pages(1500 words)Assignment

Mechanical Engineering- Mechanical Project

.... The reinforcement component, on the other hand, imparts essential changes in mechanical and physical properties of the matrix. The synergy created by combining the materials ultimately produces unique properties in created materials (Jones 1999). Composite materials need to be shaped according to the requirements, and the reinforcement is first placed in the moulding cavity to produce the required material shape. Within the setting of many composite materials fibres could become defined as providing essential reinforcement upon various materials. Fibre reinforced composite materials could be categorised in two broad categories; continuous fibre-reinforced materials and short fibre-reinforced materials,...
8 Pages(2000 words)Essay

Mechanical Engineering- Mechanical Project

...Polymers (FRP) industry. During the Second World War, demand for alternate materials increased, as they became necessary in the manufacture of lightweight military aircrafts. During this period numerous advancements occurred regarding the production and application of fibre composites. Engineers discovered other advantages as these material remains transparent to radio frequencies utilised during wartime. Many fibreglass reinforced material became adopted in protecting electronic radar equipment. Following the end of the war inventors began making application for the fibreglass within other industries, other than aviation. Brandt Goldsworthy – grandfather of composites, developed numerous processes for manufacturing...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

Molly Spotted Elk

...and completely free spirit”9, Molly danced even “topless”10. This must have been exciting even for her but it does not change the fact that a woman who dances topless does not care much about her image and reputation. Molly must have therefore suffered much at this point in her life. Career as an Actress In 1928, Molly Spotted Elk’s friendship with a Hollywood producer made her star in “The Silent Enemy,” one of Paramount Pictures’ last silent movies. Molly played the role of Neewa, the daughter of the tribal chief. In the movie, she was among the Ojibwa Indians who struggled against hunger, which was the silent enemy of the Indian people before the coming of the white man. The problem was that Molly had...
4 Pages(1000 words)Research Paper

Brain Anatomy and Relations with Skull

...on fossil morphology. Modern ideas on human evolution are based on a variety of forms of evidence addition to morphology: molecular clocks' such 2 interspecies differences in DNA and haemoglol anthropological observations on apes and primitive hunter-gatherers; tools; preserved footprints; and considerations of climate and likely competitors. These factors should all be mentioned, but from the classroom point of view they do not have the convenience and concrete appeal of the skulls. It is not intended to cover the topic of the human evolutionary pathway comprehensively here. Recent and interesting accounts of the fossil record and prehistory of man can be found in Day (1984), Leakey...
4 Pages(1000 words)Article


...Insert Tip deflection of a cantilever beam Objective The objective of this experiment was to determine the tip deflections of I and T section cantilever beams when subjected to increasing point loads and relate the values obtained with the theoretical values. Apparatus The experiment was conducted with the following equipments I and T section beams Rule Micrometre Vernier Calliper Dial Test Indicator Procedure The dimensions for both I and T section beams were measured and recorded Both beams were weighed and their weights recorded in kilograms The second moment of area for each beam was calculated and recorded A mass of 0.5 kg was loaded at the tip of each beam and the deflection measured using the Dial Test Indicator... Tip deflection of a...
5 Pages(1250 words)Coursework

Mystery Skull

...Mystery SkullSkull identification entails the observation of the index traits and the non-index (physical) traits. First we can start by referring to the index traits of the mystery skull #1 to make a comparison with the traits of the skulls given in chart 1. These index characteristics are; index of the supra-orbital height (uv/tv), index of the index of nuchal area height (tw/tv) and the index of condylar position (xy/xz). The positions of t, u, v, w, x, y and z are shown on the various figures of the specimens given. The names of the specimens C, D, E, F, G, H and B are given in the chart and any reference made in this report should be counterchecked in the...
4 Pages(1000 words)Lab Report

Skull identitation

... A Lab Report about Identification of Different Skulls This article is about the identification of three different skulls in the lab to ascertain their identity. These skulls under study were marked as mystery skull number 1, mystery skull number 2 and newly found skull. A study was undertaken for the three skulls by using a mosaic of trait that each demonstrates in comparison with other known skulls of chimpanzee, Australopithecus africanus, Australopithecus robustus, Homo habilis, Homo erectus Neanderthal, Archaic Homo sapiens and Automatically Modern Homo sapiens. This was done by trying to match up the ratios for the known varieties with the mystery skulls and the new found skull to identify the skulls under study. In addition... , the...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Mexican spotted owl

...Mexican spotted owl- Response Affiliation: I agree with the fact that the Mexican Spotted Owl is an endangered species and not much is being done about it. This is the result of people not being aware of its existence and some do not understand the need to have it not become extinct. There is need for further campaign on conservation of this unique owl. The Mexican Spotted Owl is one of the largest owls in North America and eats rabbits, bats, mice and reptiles (Morrison, 2008). The information of its mating season is very interesting and not common knowledge and especially the fact about its off springs having to hop and not fly the first two to three weeks. The US needs to show more...
1 Pages(250 words)Essay


...Identifying Skulls Introduction Many changes that have occurred in hominid evolution have been the change in proportion of the skull. Skull proportions show the different parts of the skull. The changes are noticeable when the two hominid trends: brain versus face size and the position of the occipital condyles, are measured. In this task, we are going to measure different lengths of the skull and calculate the skull indices and then compare the calculated value with some known recognized hominin species. Theory The main parts of the skull are the porion, occipital...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic Ontogenetic change in skull morphology and Mechanical Advantage in the Spotted Hyena (Crocutacrocuta) for FREE!

Contact Us