Immunology is defined as the study of the power by which an individual’s body can fight foreign insults in the form of bacteria, viruses, fungi or any other foreign body that would affect the body’s natural and normal physiology. Immunology is a sum of defensive forces which…
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On the other hand clinical immunology is the branch which is more important in applied medicine because it deals with those diseases which come into being due to malfunctioning of the immune system. Malfunctioning can be due to dysfunctional immune system or due to any abnormal malignant growth in the cells of immune system. The value of immunological mechanism in pathogenesis and transmission of disease is reflected in the context of prophylactic immunization or the therapeutic manipulation of immune response. These intellectual and practical considerations have created a pathway to establishment of new discipline called clinical immunology (Denman, 1981 pg.277).
The diseases which cause malfunctioning of the immune system fall into two subtypes which are the autoimmune diseases and the immunodeficiency diseases. Autoimmune diseases are the ones in which our defensive immune system starts attacking are own body. Best known examples of autoimmune diseases are myasthenia gravis, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and rheumatoid arthritis. Immunodeficiency diseases occur when the system cannot give proper response after foreign insult. Chronic granulomatous diseases are common immunodeficiency diseases. The most common and lethal immunodeficiency disorder is AIDS. Human immunodeficiency virus affects the body of the affected individual and starts competing with the normal cells of the body (Stern, 1981 pg.206). Another modern intervention the field of clinical immunology is dealing with is transplant rejection. Clinical immunologists work day in and day out to prevent transplant rejections which may occur if the host’s body rejects the tissue that is being transplanted (Murphy, Porett and Turka, 2011 pg.39).
Our immune system is our very own army. Its two arms, acquired and inate provide us with protection against internal and external insults. These insults can be lethal. With
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This reaction causes the body to show symptoms of allergy. When he consumed any of the above foods, he suffered from eczema. Eczema is a condition where a patient gets red scaly rashes on the skin it is common in infants (Wong, 2010). Question 2 Christopher has positive allergen specific IgE to house dust mites because in this case smaller units are studied as compared to the skin prick test which studies bigger units yet the dust mites have very minimal impact to Christopher’s immune system which cannot be detected through the skin prick test.
They are basically lymphocytes that are large and granular and constitute approximately 15% of the total lymphocytes in the circulation. These cells do not have T cell receptors as well as CD3 proteins. The immunoglobulins IgM and IgD are also not present on their outer surface.
The author states that Christopher has a positive allergen specific IgE to house- dust mites as demonstrated symptomatically with atophy and rhinitis. A portion of the population may show negative responses in SPT’s and are unresponsive to any of the compounds though it is possible for an auto immune response to be presented.
In recent years although 1-year survival after organ transplantation has improved markedly over the last 15 years, there has been little success in reversing the decline in long-term graft and patient survival that is seen
The cytotoxic T cells (Tc) will then recognize peptides attached to class I MHC molecules at the same time, the helper T cells (Th) identifies peptides attached to class II MHC molecules (Mayer, 2008).'
The MHC (RxPG News, 2006) is considered as one of the most varied regions of the human genome while its diversity is contemplated to have been shaped by extensively varying evolutionary influences.
Question 4: The patient is a 50 year old male, with a chief complaint of recurrent respiratory infection since he was a teenager, resulting to annual antibiotics use. No family history of respiratory illness, and no personal history of
There are very few patients who show no sign in skin prick test but show severe symptoms. Still skin prick test is the most valid method to be performed to check the sensitivity of an allergen
Major allergen in milk can vary from one to
These cells play a similar role to that played by cytotoxic T Cells in adaptive immune response among vertebrates. The Natural Killer (NK) cells provide quick responses to cells infected by viruses and also respond to formation of tumors. The cells become active and start working at around three days after an infection has occurred.
They are produced in the human body by the plasma cells as well as the lymphocytes. They are basically glycoproteins that are each made up by two light and two heavy polypeptide chains. Their main functions include preventing the action of toxins as well as viruses, opsonisation of foreign particles to assist in the process of phagocytosis, triggering of the complement system as well as protection of the mucosa by avoiding the attachment of microbes which may cause harm.
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