An author of this study "Sickle Cell Anemia" intends to analyze some works regarding the disease called sickle cell anemia. Furthermore, the present paper would focus on the relation of such disease and malaria, in detail describing its cooperation on a biological level…
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Individuals with two copies of the mutant version of the hemoglobin gene are likely to develop full-blown sickle cell anemia (Malowany 49).
According to the Darwinian theory of evolution, the existence of sickle cell anemia in only certain geographical regions of the world particularly those prone to malaria is a good example of an evolutionary trade-off during the process of natural selection. In his book, the Origin of the species by natural selection, Darwin particularly outlined the steps of survival for the fittest by arguing that populations often show variations in virtually all traits and that certain variations can improve the survivorship of individuals or organisms(improving their fitness).
On the other hand, the theory also suggests that the frequency of these variations may increase with each generation if they are heritable. The evolutionary trade-off between Sickle cell anemia and Malaria was first highlighted after the discovery that the geographical distribution for the sickle cell allele known as hemoglobin S was virtually overlapping with the geographical distribution of Malaria (Hiren 25). This is particularly based on the notion that sickle cell heterozygote are often resistant to malaria and therefore individuals with sickle cell traits have a survival advantage in Malaria prone regions such as West Africa as compared with individuals with normal hemoglobin.
Malaria is a common tropical disease caused by a protozoan P. falciparum which is largely transmitted through mosquito bites. The protozoa then infect the red blood cells of the victim and multiply thereby becoming available for transfer to other susceptible individuals via mosquito bites. According to Tapper (134), malaria is a disease that has existed in Africa and other tropical regions for several millennia.
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It is the oxygen carrier in blood. In other words, Hemoglobin is responsible for distributing oxygen to different body organs. It should be noted that adequate oxygen supply is necessary for many of the body organs to function well. So any defects occur to the Hemoglobin can cause problems in the functioning of different body organs.
The author claims that the dreaded complication of the disease in adults are infarction crises which can manifest as dactylitis, femoral head necrosis, hematuria and stroke. The disease is through autosomal recessive inheritance. Mutation of the HbS gene causes a different type of hemoglobin that causes sickling of red blood cells.
The term sickle cell comes from the sickle shape or the crescent type shape of the affected hemoglobin molecules. It is caused due to a change in just a single nucleotide in a DNA molecule out of a billion others present in the cells of the human body. It may seem like a minor change but the effect is disastrous.
This sickling of the cells is caused due to a change in one of the nucleotides of a DNA molecule out of the billion other cells present in the human body. This change may seem minor, but the results are disastrous. A person affected with sickle cell anemia inherits a mutated or recessive allele from both the parents.
Most pregnant women fear telling their husbands that they should go, be screened, and would rather give birth to children who have sickle cell anaemia. The contributory factor to sickle cell anaemia is the fact that most people lack education about the disease and so are not aware about it.
This process causes damage to the red blood cell membrane and sometimes the red blood cells get attached in blood vessels. This attachment or adherence of the red blood cells deprives the tissues of oxygen causing ischemia and infarction.The disease is chronic with periodic painful attacks,damage of internal organs with complications of strokes and subsequent shortened lifespan.The average life span of sickle cell patients is just 40 years.
Around 70,000 people, who are from sub African, even though there are some reports in India, some parts of central and South American areas, southern parts of Europe, and Caribbean regions mostly experience sickle cell anemia. Several children do not show any
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