Genetic discrimination is a form of discrimination especially by employers or insurance companies based on possession of perceived harmful genes that exposes a person to the risk of developing a chronic condition. Records of genetic tests are included in medical records…
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the Human Genome Project has recognized possibility of genetic discrimination and has suggested that results of genetic tests should not be used to make decisions on eligibility for insurance cover or employment. They have also suggested that third parties should not have access to that information except through written permission of the person who owns the test records.
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of 1996 protect people against genetic discrimination. However, where employer and insurers have access to the records, there is no guarantee that people will not be discriminated against. For example, although discrimination based on gender and race is illegal, evidence shows that people or color face barriers to accessing employment and women face obstacles that prevent them from leadership positions. The same applies to people with disability. This means that making genetic discrimination illegal does not guarantee that employers and insurers will always comply (Schoonmaker and Williams 23). Genetic testing is likely to contribute to increased cases of discrimination for those in possession of the wrong gene.
Genetic testing is useful in some cases. For example, some people who carry the gene HLA-DPB1 have beryllium sensitivity and chronic beryllium disease. Genetic test can reveal this occupation hazard for the people with this gene in the workplace. However, in circumstances where the company wants to lay off workers, people with the gene may be the first to be laid off as their condition may be considered by the company as a liability. This suggests that genetic discrimination even where advantages of genetic test are obvious could still be used to victimize people (Maheu 12).
Another danger of genetic tests stems from American experience with eugenics. Eugenic movement was strong in America in the 19th century. It was even widely accepted in the academic community. The early proponents of eugenics were prominent scientists and
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Scientists and policymakers alike are testifying to the potential benefits of the human genome project. But ethicists and theologians are opposing the project based on the ethical concerns it raises. This essay tries to answer three of the major questions the human genome project poses: (1) What will the world look like in regard to genetic testing, genetic engineering, and cloning; (2) can the information learned from the Human Genome Project be used to eradicate disease; (3) what are the ethical implications and how might this power be misused?
This paper introduces the Human Genome Project, with a brief history of its creation and a summary of its main aims and achievements thus far. There is then a consideration of the social, ethical and economic implications of genetic research. Social implications include major advances in medical treatments, but also changes in people’s attitudes and behaviour due to new procedures like testing when symptoms arise or screening before any disease syptoms are apparent.
The human genome project represents an effort to determine more than 3 billion nucleotides located within the human genome and to identify the genes that are present. Before the project was initiated, the US Department of Energy supported work that was done in the course of several years, which culminated with initiative given by the Department of Energy in 1986.
(Human, 2006). The significance of the project is indicated by the major initiative taken by the Government keeping in view its overall benefits to the public. It is also natural that the private sector which primarily operates on the basis of profit making only seeks projects which have a scope of providing substantial returns.
Between the genome decoding and the appearance of new wonder, medicine is a great distance to reach. Usually, it takes about 10-12 years to test, to create the proper medicaments, and to release them on sale. However, what we have today, is the decoded genome only, and the human body contains about 30 000 different genes.
and there are issues of bioethics that surround it because some people think that the project will lead to eugenics and the formation of structural inequality theory based on genetics. “Yet despite this impact on society as a whole, legislation on the regulation of
Abnormal pairing or alteration in pairing of DNA bases results to varieties of genetic complications, which can be inheritable. Several studies have been carried in an attempt to explore more about genome. Various institutions and projects have, thus, been
The author asserted that decoding the human genome would result in better understanding and advantages for human health. However, some scientists opposed the move fearing that this kind of project would lead to a product that would be of little benefit to human beings. The Human Genome Project began in 1990.
The level of the SHGB, whether low or high, determines the quantity of the bioavailable testosterone. This makes the assessment of the gene levels among patients undergoing tests for Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) very important. The aims of this project entail; the
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