Free

Review - Article Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Summary
Mammals have intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) that are capable of forming non-images that results to formation of visual functions, for instance, the pupillary light reflex (PLR) and the circadian photoentrainment. The photosensitivy performs…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER97.6% of users find it useful
Review article
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Review"

Article, Biology -Melanopsin, the circadian photoreceptor Mammals have intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) that are capable of forming non-images that results to formation of visual functions, for instance, the pupillary light reflex (PLR) and the circadian photoentrainment. The photosensitivy performs efficiently under Melonopsin, which resembles an Opsin that is protein in nature and produced by the ipRGCS.
However, it is uncertain whether Melonopsin works like a photo pigment or rather as a photoisomerase. Investigations conducted illustrate that Melonopsin functions as a photoisomerase most probably in the mouse retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). The paper aims at investigating whether Vitamin A -based chromophore is essential in photo reception by the ipRGS. In addition, the paper seeks to investigate the function of melanopsin in signaling the photo-pigments. In responding to these uncertainty, the paper studies a knock-out mouse line which lacks the RPE65 (rpe65–/–), which is a substantial protein that regenerates the 11–cis–retinal in the RPE.
In essence, the paper succinctly covers the topic by ascertaining that there are other photo receptors within the mammalian retina other than the known rods and cones. The main concept behind this paper is to have a clear understanding of the diversity of the ipRGCs and their different functions in regulating behavior.
The findings illustrate that Rpe65–/– ipRGCs were 20–40–fold and are not photosensitive whether at single cell or behavioral (PLR) levels. The photosensitivity detected is expressed by exogenous 9–cis–retinal, an 11–cis–retinal analog.
In addition, there was no detection of Melanopsin in the retinal pigment epithelium or any results both in the rod and cone sensitivities. This is a factor that led to ablation of Melanopsin in both the ERG and single cell recordings.
It was, therefore, concluded that Vitamin A- based chromophore is required for ipGGC photosensitivy and Melanopsin and it is probably the photopigment present in ipRGCs.
Work Cited
Yingbin Fu Et al. (July 12, 2005). Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells, detect light with a vitamin A-based photopigment, melanopsin.
. Read More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“Review article Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 11”, n.d.)
Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/biology/1617540-review-article
(Review Article Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 Words - 11)
https://studentshare.org/biology/1617540-review-article.
“Review Article Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 Words - 11”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/biology/1617540-review-article.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Review article

Review Article

...be overcome with a deep reflection of one's self and the determination to provide nursing care that is culturally sensitive. Review Rapid globalization has resulted to the dispersion of people all around the globe leading to culturally diverse communities. The probability of encountering or working with someone from another culture is now very high as many nurses from different countries fly to the US to fill in the nursing shortage. Working in a multinational setting can give serious stress but nurses, in their sworn responsibility to provide health care, must learn to consider the cultures of their workmates and patients. Jeffrey's article is informative and clear as it is able to capture the issue...
20 Pages(5000 words)Essay

Review Article

...history” play. In the context of the Eck et al. (2002) article, these questions are not answered and left assumed for the reader. In terms of methodological limitations, there are two mentioned within the Discussion section of the article. The first refers to the fact that the researchers measured pressures for only flexion and extension movements; although these methods have the greatest effect on intradiscal pressure, there may be other forms of movement (such as internal and external rotation) that could be measured with respect to the spine that could affect the results of their study. The second limitation refers to the methodological inability to exert pressure on the precise location between each...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Review article

...SCN as clock, and its mechanism of communication The article, diffusible coupling signals from transplanted superchiasmatic nucleus controlling circadian locomotor rhythms involve, an analysis of mammalian suprachiasmatic nuclei transplant. This suprachiastic nucleus (SCN) transmits signals to the brain, organizing circadian rhythms throughout the body. The authors set to show methods of SCN transplant and how they behave during the transplant that is before and after. Also, they talk of showing how transplanted SCN similar to neural pacemakers of silkmoths and drosophila can maintain circadian activity rhythms by diffusible signals. Consequently, the authors show how circadian rhythm is produced by the donor tissue and...
1 Pages(250 words)Article

Review article

...Review: Multioscillatory Circadian Organization in a Vertebrate, Iguana iguana The research paper is about the study of circadian systems of multi cellular organisms, the study investigates circadian responses of animals in different situations. To be more specific the study in this research paper is carried out in order to clarify the roles played by the ‘retina’ – light sensitive layer of tissue, lining the inner surface of eye, ‘pineal’- a small endocrine gland in the vertebrae brain and ‘parietal eye’ – third eye, which is a part of epithalamus present in some species in the circadian organization in species. Circadian process or organization is not influenced by the absence of environmental periodicity; these...
1 Pages(250 words)Article

Review article

...Article Review- “Independent Photoreceptive Circadian Clocks throughout Drosophila” The article reviews the expression of luciferase or green fluorescent protein from the promoter of the clock period in order to monitor the circadian clock in explanted abdominal tissues, head and thorax in transgenic drosophila (Plautz et al., 1632). The observed photoreceptive properties of the explanted tissues indicate the role of unidentified photoreceptors in photic signal transduction of the clock. The purpose of the study is to investigate the expression of genes instrumental to the functioning of the biological clock. The researchers sought to examine the activity of unidentified...
1 Pages(250 words)Article

Review article

...Article Review Functional Independence of Circadian Clocks That Regulate Plant Gene Expression In eukaryotes, behavior, gene expression and metabolism are regulated through circadian clocks. These clocks control physiology through a succession of processes that are synchronized with the day and night cycles. While central pacemakers in animals are found to be located in the brains, the presence of such a pacemaker in plants is doubtful. It is seen that peripheral tissues of plants and animals also seem to have circadian rhythms. However, the central regulator of these circadian clocks in the intact organism is unknown. While it is known that peripheral circadian clocks exist, it is not known whether...
1 Pages(250 words)Article

Review article

... Article Review The article en d “Multilevel Regulation of the Circadian Clock” by Nicolas Cermakian and PaoloSassone-Corsi discussed in detail the biological explanation of circadian rhythm and how its clock (circadian clock) is being regulated at multiple levels. According to the paper, most of the living organisms have built-on circadian rhythms that allow them to adapt to the cyclical changes in the environment. This can be done mainly on feedback loops at transcriptional level. However, the article revealed that circadian rhythms are not only generated and regulated at the transcriptional level but also in the post-transcriptional level, post-translational mechanisms, chromatin remodeling, clock proteins availability... , and...
1 Pages(250 words)Article

Review article

... Neurospora circadian Rythms in space To test the functioning of circadian rhythms removed from periodicities of the earth’s 24 hour rotation, the conidiation Rhythms of fungus Neurospora crassa was monitored in darkness during spaceflight. The free –running period of the rhythm was the same in space than as on the earth, but there was a marked reduction in the clarity of the rhythm, and apparent a rhythmicity in some tunes. The background and the purpose of the Neurospora circadian Rhythms was based on two main objectives:- to determine whether effect seen in space was related to removal from 24-hour periodicities and whether the circadian time keeping mechanism was ,or merely its expression, was affected. This experiment... Neurospora...
1 Pages(250 words)Article

Review article

...Article Review: Circadian Gating of Cell Division in Cyanobacteria Growing with Average Doubling Times of Less Than 24 hours The research article by Mor, Binder and Johnson delves into the one of the functions of the circadian oscillator located in the prokaryotic cyanobacterium. To this end, the authors explore its function in relation to time regulation as far as cell division is concerned within cultures that are growing rapidly. The purpose of the research article was informed by the fact that cell division cycles and circadian rhythms play an important role in cyclic biological systems. Moreover, among unicellular eukaryotic organisms, the rhythmic mechanism...
1 Pages(250 words)Article

Review article

...there exists the potential for unrest and uprising. Political movements also spring up with promise to bring equality (Lewis, 1966) Contrary to previous assumptions that there is disorganisation in the slum community, Lewis 1996 reports the presence of temporary informal groups e.g. gangs, community committees and others. The seclusion of the people is likely contributors to this group because, in their common interest, they come together to find solutions. Some of these groupings are so diverse that they transcend normal tribal communities. The case of South Africa is given is a good example. Critical review Lewis (1966), and Bourgois (2001), both agree that the culture of poverty indeed does transcend the normal...
4 Pages(1000 words)Book Report/Review
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Article on topic Review article for FREE!

Contact Us