StudentShare
Contact Us
Sign In / Sign Up for FREE
Search
Go to advanced search...
Free

Review - Article Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Summary
Mammals have intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) that are capable of forming non-images that results to formation of visual functions, for instance, the pupillary light reflex (PLR) and the circadian photoentrainment. The photosensitivy performs…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER93.8% of users find it useful
Review article
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Review"

Article, Biology -Melanopsin, the circadian photoreceptor Mammals have intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) that are capable of forming non-images that results to formation of visual functions, for instance, the pupillary light reflex (PLR) and the circadian photoentrainment. The photosensitivy performs efficiently under Melonopsin, which resembles an Opsin that is protein in nature and produced by the ipRGCS.
However, it is uncertain whether Melonopsin works like a photo pigment or rather as a photoisomerase. Investigations conducted illustrate that Melonopsin functions as a photoisomerase most probably in the mouse retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). The paper aims at investigating whether Vitamin A -based chromophore is essential in photo reception by the ipRGS. In addition, the paper seeks to investigate the function of melanopsin in signaling the photo-pigments. In responding to these uncertainty, the paper studies a knock-out mouse line which lacks the RPE65 (rpe65–/–), which is a substantial protein that regenerates the 11–cis–retinal in the RPE.
In essence, the paper succinctly covers the topic by ascertaining that there are other photo receptors within the mammalian retina other than the known rods and cones. The main concept behind this paper is to have a clear understanding of the diversity of the ipRGCs and their different functions in regulating behavior.
The findings illustrate that Rpe65–/– ipRGCs were 20–40–fold and are not photosensitive whether at single cell or behavioral (PLR) levels. The photosensitivity detected is expressed by exogenous 9–cis–retinal, an 11–cis–retinal analog.
In addition, there was no detection of Melanopsin in the retinal pigment epithelium or any results both in the rod and cone sensitivities. This is a factor that led to ablation of Melanopsin in both the ERG and single cell recordings.
It was, therefore, concluded that Vitamin A- based chromophore is required for ipGGC photosensitivy and Melanopsin and it is probably the photopigment present in ipRGCs.
Work Cited
Yingbin Fu Et al. (July 12, 2005). Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells, detect light with a vitamin A-based photopigment, melanopsin.
. Read More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“Review article Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 11”, n.d.)
Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/biology/1617540-review-article
(Review Article Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 Words - 11)
https://studentshare.org/biology/1617540-review-article.
“Review Article Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 Words - 11”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/biology/1617540-review-article.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Review article

Review Article

... be overcome with a deep reflection of one's self and the determination to provide nursing care that is culturally sensitive. Review Rapid globalization has resulted to the dispersion of people all around the globe leading to culturally diverse communities. The probability of encountering or working with someone from another culture is now very high as many nurses from different countries fly to the US to fill in the nursing shortage. Working in a multinational setting can give serious stress but nurses, in their sworn responsibility to provide health care, must learn to consider the cultures of their workmates and patients. Jeffrey's article is informative and clear as it is able to capture the issue of culturally competent nurse care...
20 Pages(5000 words)Essay

Review Article

... history” play. In the context of the Eck et al. (2002) article, these questions are not answered and left assumed for the reader. In terms of methodological limitations, there are two mentioned within the Discussion section of the article. The first refers to the fact that the researchers measured pressures for only flexion and extension movements; although these methods have the greatest effect on intradiscal pressure, there may be other forms of movement (such as internal and external rotation) that could be measured with respect to the spine that could affect the results of their study. The second limitation refers to the methodological inability to exert pressure on the precise location between each of the cadaver specimens. Individual...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Review article

... SCN as clock, and its mechanism of communication The article, diffusible coupling signals from transplanted superchiasmatic nucleus controlling circadian locomotor rhythms involve, an analysis of mammalian suprachiasmatic nuclei transplant. This suprachiastic nucleus (SCN) transmits signals to the brain, organizing circadian rhythms throughout the body. The authors set to show methods of SCN transplant and how they behave during the transplant that is before and after. Also, they talk of showing how transplanted SCN similar to neural pacemakers of silkmoths and drosophila can maintain circadian activity rhythms by diffusible signals. Consequently, the authors show how circadian rhythm is produced by the donor tissue and not a consequence...
1 Pages(250 words)Article

Review article

... Review: Multioscillatory Circadian Organization in a Vertebrate, Iguana iguana The research paper is about the study of circadian systems of multi cellular organisms, the study investigates circadian responses of animals in different situations. To be more specific the study in this research paper is carried out in order to clarify the roles played by the ‘retina’ – light sensitive layer of tissue, lining the inner surface of eye, ‘pineal’- a small endocrine gland in the vertebrae brain and ‘parietal eye’ – third eye, which is a part of epithalamus present in some species in the circadian organization in species. Circadian process or organization is not influenced by the absence of environmental periodicity; these biological processes...
1 Pages(250 words)Article

Review article

... Article Review- “Independent Photoreceptive Circadian Clocks throughout Drosophila” The article reviews the expression of luciferase or green fluorescent protein from the promoter of the clock period in order to monitor the circadian clock in explanted abdominal tissues, head and thorax in transgenic drosophila (Plautz et al., 1632). The observed photoreceptive properties of the explanted tissues indicate the role of unidentified photoreceptors in photic signal transduction of the clock. The purpose of the study is to investigate the expression of genes instrumental to the functioning of the biological clock. The researchers sought to examine the activity of unidentified circadian photoreceptors in other organs other than the eyes...
1 Pages(250 words)Article

Review article

...Article Review Functional Independence of Circadian Clocks That Regulate Plant Gene Expression In eukaryotes, behavior, gene expression and metabolism are regulated through circadian clocks. These clocks control physiology through a succession of processes that are synchronized with the day and night cycles. While central pacemakers in animals are found to be located in the brains, the presence of such a pacemaker in plants is doubtful. It is seen that peripheral tissues of plants and animals also seem to have circadian rhythms. However, the central regulator of these circadian clocks in the intact organism is unknown. While it is known that peripheral circadian clocks exist, it is not known whether these clocks are mutually coupled...
1 Pages(250 words)Article

Review article

... Article Review The article en d “Multilevel Regulation of the Circadian Clock” by Nicolas Cermakian and PaoloSassone-Corsi discussed in detail the biological explanation of circadian rhythm and how its clock (circadian clock) is being regulated at multiple levels. According to the paper, most of the living organisms have built-on circadian rhythms that allow them to adapt to the cyclical changes in the environment. This can be done mainly on feedback loops at transcriptional level. However, the article revealed that circadian rhythms are not only generated and regulated at the transcriptional level but also in the post-transcriptional level, post-translational mechanisms, chromatin remodeling, clock proteins availability...
1 Pages(250 words)Article

Review article

... Neurospora circadian Rythms in space To test the functioning of circadian rhythms removed from periodicities of the earth’s 24 hour rotation, the conidiation Rhythms of fungus Neurospora crassa was monitored in darkness during spaceflight. The free –running period of the rhythm was the same in space than as on the earth, but there was a marked reduction in the clarity of the rhythm, and apparent a rhythmicity in some tunes. The background and the purpose of the Neurospora circadian Rhythms was based on two main objectives:- to determine whether effect seen in space was related to removal from 24-hour periodicities and whether the circadian time keeping mechanism was ,or merely its expression, was affected. This experiment... Neurospora...
1 Pages(250 words)Article

Review article

... Article Review: Circadian Gating of Cell Division in Cyanobacteria Growing with Average Doubling Times of Less Than 24 hours The research article by Mor, Binder and Johnson delves into the one of the functions of the circadian oscillator located in the prokaryotic cyanobacterium. To this end, the authors explore its function in relation to time regulation as far as cell division is concerned within cultures that are growing rapidly. The purpose of the research article was informed by the fact that cell division cycles and circadian rhythms play an important role in cyclic biological systems. Moreover, among unicellular eukaryotic organisms, the rhythmic mechanism exhibited in most cases is non-independent whenever cell division timing...
1 Pages(250 words)Article

Review article

The culture of poverty is, therefore, a self-perpetuating system.
The culture of poverty can also be defined as the resignation of people to coping with feelings of hopelessness in the realisation of the improbability of improvement of achievement of success in the prevailing values. People become more adapted and accepting of their marginal position in a highly stratified, individuated and capitalistic society (Lewis, 1966).
Lewis (1966) employs the use of questionnaires that explore sociology, anthropology and psychology of the hundred families that are under study. The questionnaires were centred family relationships, income and expenditure, personal and household possessions, friendship patterns, recreational patterns...
4 Pages(1000 words)Book Report/Review

Critique of Technological Innovations, Activity Based Costing and Satisfaction Article by Davood Askarany

Many of the innovations have been introduced as early as 1980, such as “activity-based costing (ABC); activity management (AM) and activity-based management (ABM); local information system (LS); balanced scorecard (BS); life cycle costing (LCC) and target costing (TC) [and] strategic management accounting (SMA).” (Askarany, Smith and Yazdifar 54). However, few of these have been implemented and utilized to their full potential. The authors propose to find a reason for this.

ABC focuses on costs associated with activities, but also evaluates whether those activities add value, thus providing a means of understanding how to most effectively reduce costs. In addition to cost reduction benefits, applying ABC giv...
7 Pages(1750 words)Term Paper

Analysis of All Changes Great or Small Exploring Approaches to Change and Its Leadership Article by Higgs and Rowland

The change referred to in this context includes a broad array of topics. From an individual perspective, the change may be a new behavior. From a business perspective, the change may be a new business process and/or new technology. From a societal perspective, the change may be a new public policy or the passing of new legislation. Successful change, however, requires more than a new process, technology or public policy. Successful change may require the engagement and participation of the people involved. Change management provides a framework for managing the people side of these changes. The most recent research points to a combination of organizational change management tools and individual change management models for effecti...
13 Pages(3250 words)Article

Analysis of a Management Practitioner Article Using Relevant Organisational Behaviour Theory

The culture of an organization is its integral part and the behaviors and attitudes of its people are responsible for the organization’s success or failure. The ingredients of change are coordination, commitment, and competencies. Coordination is the key to improving the organization. Commitment is the key to concerted effort to achieve the vision that magnifies the desired improvement. Competencies are the skills that are required to bring about the change.

While there are many well defined and understood theories of strategic management there are few for cultural and management practices. The managers often fall back on these theories to emulate them in practice.

According to Nelson and Winter (1982)...
11 Pages(2750 words)Term Paper

Article Analysis of 11 Ways to Critique an Article by Mike Metcalfe

The systems for thinking perspective and T.O.P perspective styles have been chosen as this article needs to have an explicitly straight conclusion. Moreover, the ethical issues concerning the organization have also not been given adequate treatment in the article which makes it a one-sided communication on the part of the author. Also, certain other critical issues concerning the article involve lack of adequate clarification on the part of the author regarding various key issues such as what would be the resultant consequences in case of failure on the part of the employee / prospective employee to adhere to the rules and regulations governing the protection of privacy of the organizational data. Are there any legal obligations i...
11 Pages(2750 words)Assignment

Infrastructure Application and Review: France

Referring specifically to the country’s water network, Jacobson et al. (1995) notice that ‘although waterworks facilities in France are predominantly government-owned, private firms operate and manage most systems under an array of contracting and leasing arrangements’ (Jacobson et al., 1995, online article). The above study describes the general terms under which the development of infrastructure systems in France is progressing. It should be noticed at this point that in France, the government’s policies regarding the development of infrastructure systems were not always effective – moreover, they were rather limited. Indeed, in a report published by the OECD in 2005, it is noticed that ‘in 19...
9 Pages(2250 words)Case Study

Critical Review of Goth: Identity, Style and Subculture by Paul Hodkinson

The allure from this standpoint is seen by the author. This report measures mainly the methodology that Hodkinson uses, which is grounded theory research, and the report also examines questions of fixed vs. flexible research. The findings of the research are briefly presented before the current research investigation concludes.

The Goth subculture is founded on principles of viewing some of what society outside this subculture, or mainstream culture, views as abhorrent or negative. There is some fetish tendency in this subculture towards the macabre and death, with face-paint style makeup and mourning clothing being prominent features of belongingness, which are certainly not reflective of mainstream fashion and makeup....
6 Pages(1500 words)Book Report/Review

Critical Review of General Electric

... mission and vision of the company. Beyond this, it also needs to review how its strategy formulation and strategy implementation had gotten separated in the last few years (Grant 2005, p. 187). Even with todays remaining six divisions (infrastructure, industrials, commercial finance, GE Money, health care and NBC-Universal), it still needs to trim down. In other words, G.E. needs to reformulate its strategy and decide once and for all that it is no longer viable to be a conglomerate. The days of empire are over and it is best to start selecting the core areas in which it can compete effectively by disposing of non-core assets and businesses. It is only now that G.E. has finally tried to go past the shadow of Jack Welch whose influence...
12 Pages(3000 words)Report

Analysis of Negative Equity Spells End of US Love of Homeownership Article by Dominic Rushe

...1. Article Summary The article by Dominic Rushe d ‘Negative equity spells end of US love of home ownership’ appeared on the internet on Friday the 22nd of April, 2011. The article can be accessed at us-housing-market-still-in-doldrums. The article states about the situation of the housing market in the US; “it is still on the slide for five years and there is no sign of an imminent recovery.” Home possession degrees are now back to those levels as was seen in 1998. Some economists are even anxious that the USs may have lessened their love of property ownership. It looks that boom years had never occurred. Paul Dales, US economist at Capital Economics says that "You would have to go back to the Great Depression to find anything similar...
6 Pages(1500 words)Term Paper

Comparative Review of Welfare System

In order to compare the welfare system of the three proposed countries, it is important to first develop a comparative method that would guide in comparing the three states. For the purpose of this paper, a binary comparison would be conducted. The implicit comparison would deal with Britain while the explicit comparison would explore the USA and Canada. Thereby a small N’ study would be used, that is, of three countries.
The three countries selected to share a similarity in the form that these countries are a welfare state. This is when welfare is mainly funded by the state. While the USA and Canada focus on the liberal welfare state, the welfare state of the UK is not quite defined.
The comparison of the welfare...
8 Pages(2000 words)Term Paper

Analysis of Article about Global Warming

...Sur Lecturer Global warming Global warming is the increase in the level of the average temperature of the atmosphere of the Earth andoceans and its anticipated continuation since the late 19th century. Warming of the system of the climate has been unequivocal, and many scientists are more than 90% sure that it is majorly caused by rising concentrations of greenhouse gases that are produced by activities of human beings like deforestation and burning of fossil fuels. Many journal articles have been authored by various authors on global warming, and this paper seeks to note a narrative essay concerning one journal article: Martin, Susan. Climate Change, Migration and Governance: Global Governance 16 (2010), 397–414. This is a primary source...
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Article on topic Review article for FREE!

Contact Us