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Protein Synthesis - Assignment Example

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From the paper "Protein Synthesis" it is clear that termination of polypeptide happens when the A site of the ribosome faces a stop codon (UAA, UAG or UGA). No tRNA can recognize it. But the releasing factor can recognize nonsense codons and causes the release of the polypeptide chain…
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Protein Synthesis
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Extract of sample "Protein Synthesis"

Proteins are manufactured or built up in the cells. The process in which cells build up proteins is called protein synthesis. Genes control the character of organisms through protein synthesis. It involves two steps—transcription and translation.
Transcription
The transcription of mRNA from a DNA takes place in this step. Transcription occurs in the cell nucleus, where the DNA is held. Transcription can be divided into 3 stages: Initiation, Elongation, and Termination. These stages are regulated by transcription factors and coactivators— an array of proteins—which ensure that the correct gene is transcribed.
Translation
In Activation—the correct amino acid (AA) is joined to the correct tRNA.
In Initiation, the small subunit of ribosome binding to 5 ends of mRNA with the help of initiation factors (IF). The other proteins assist the process.
In Elongation, the next aminoacyl tRNA (charged tRNA) line binds to the ribosome along with with GTP and an elongation factor.
In brief, we can say that all the four steps describe the growth of the amino acid chain or polypeptide that is the product of translation.
If there are errors in protein synthesis fitness of cells may be disrupted. The errors may also cause diseases due to the interaction of its genotype and the environment, and cause genome evolution. Such studies have been part of various sciences like neurobiology, and molecular evolution. Read More
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