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area and that usually HPS occurs in a shed or cabin closed for some time but which is improperly cleaned (“Facts about Hantaviruses,” 2011; “Hantavirus,” 2011). This enclosed area usually contains rodent excreta, which when inhaled by a human would cause HPS (Siegel, 2011). The virus, specifically known as Sin Nombre Virus or SNV, has a rodent host – which is usually the deer mouse, the white-footed mouse, the cotton rat and the rice rat (Siegel, 2011; “Facts about Hantaviruses,” CDC, 2011). It is the excreta from these rodents, usually in the form of urine, saliva or feces, that contains the virus (Siegel, 2011).
When the charge nurse said, “I knew there was a good reason not to clean my house,” she was referring to the improper way of cleaning the cabin where the young male patient most likely acquired HPS. It was partly the fault of the girlfriend, who considered herself a “neat freak” and who was “constantly cleaning and disinfecting.” Little did she know that there was probably rat excreta in the cabin which was inhaled by her boyfriend right after she cleaned it improperly. According to Siegel (2011), “peridomestic activities associated with HPS were cleaning food storage areas or outbuildings” and this was probably what the girlfriend always did. However, since the proper way of cleaning up rodent excreta is by NOT sweeping or vacuuming and since the girlfriend probably did exactly this, then it caused the virus-infested excreta particles to go into the air and reach the boyfriend’s lungs by inhalation (“Facts about Hantaviruses, CDC, 2011).
However, the question remains on whether the disease is found only in the Southwest or what factors exactly determine the places where the SNV might be present. Based on past data, the disease has actually spread to the neighboring states like South Dakota and North Dakota. In fact, only after two months from the attack in the Southwest in May 1993, there were cases found in Nevada,
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These includes abnormal respiration pattern, auscultation of breath sounds, measurement of arterial blood gases, and chest X-ray (CXR). The first key assessment data and the most observable symptom in the case of Mr. Bukowski is abnormal respiration pattern.
SARS is expanded as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome which affects the human respiratory system caused by the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). World Health Organization has confirmed 8422 known infected cases and 916 confirmed human death between November 2002 and July 2003.
The most dominant causes of acute exacerbations of COPD entail overdose of drugs that suppress ventilator drive, as well as conditions that result to respiratory muscle weakness (Gay, 2004). Acute exacerbation of COPD represents an acute deteriorating of the patient’s baseline condition mainly characterized by dyspnea and enhanced volume and purulence of sputum.
The author says that practically, a diagnosis of respiratory failure is made in clinical presentation and arterial blood gas analysis. A fall arterial oxygen tension (Pa, O2) of <8.0 kPa (60 mmHg) and an arterial carbon dioxide tension (Pa, CO2) of >6.0 kPa (45 mmHg) or both, is indicative of respiratory failure.
He becomes fatigue and tired even after a small walk. There is no case of hemoptysis or night sweats and chills. He also suffers from ankle edema. History revealed he had no incidences of asthma, childhood respiratory problems or allergies. He had acute
servations: (1) shortness of breath at rest, (2) sits upright, (3) anxious in appearance, (4) use of accessory muscles, (5) bilateral wheezing and rhonchi, (6) HR >120, (6) PaO2 <60 mmHg with cyanosis, and (7) SaO2 <91%. Moreover, the patient’s history of chronic severe
y disease (COPD) are treated with oxygen (in hypoxemic patients), inhaled beta2 agonists, inhaled anticholinergics, antibiotics and systemic corticosteroids. Methylxanthine therapy may be considered in patients who do not respond to other bronchodilators. Since the most common
3. Carl is on Lipitor which is nothing but atorvostatin which is given for lipid derangements like hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia. Abnormal lipid metabolism increases the risk of atherosclerosis which
shown that these factors often conspire with the internal genetic mutations thus resulting into the destabilization of the appropriate checks and balances necessary for normal growth and functioning of body organs and organ systems. While doctors professionally explain why
It affects adults as well as children and is a global health problem (Australian Centre for Asthma Monitoring 2011). It frequently has associations with COPD, allergies, rhinitis and other respiratory diseases. So far as definition is concerned, there is no gold standard definition.
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