Contact Us
Sign In / Sign Up for FREE
Go to advanced search...

How does meiosis contribute to human genetic diversity - Essay Example

Comments (1) Cite this document
Genetic variability among humans is essential for survival. Reproduction plays a significant role to create genetic variability in the offspring. This genetic variability helps to cope up human beings to changing environment and therefore for evolution…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER94.5% of users find it useful
How does meiosis contribute to human genetic diversity
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "How does meiosis contribute to human genetic diversity"

How Does Meiosis Contribute to Human Genetic Diversity Genetic variability among humans is essential for survival. Reproduction playsa

significant role to create genetic variability in the offspring. This genetic variability

helps to cope up human beings to changing environment and therefore for evolution.

There are three major sources of such variations, namely, the independent assortment of

chromosomes during meiosis, reciprocal recombination of the linked genes on

chromosomes by crossing over in prophase I of meiosis, and random fertilization of

gametes, thereby raising possibility of innumerable combinations.

Sexual reproduction usually comprises of genetic contributions from the two

parental organisms. The key to sexual reproduction in eukaryotic human cell is meiosis.

The word meiosis comes from the Greek word meaning "to diminish", and that is what

meiosis does: it reduces the number of chromosomes by half, that is, if a cell contains 23

pairs of chromosomes before meiosis, after meiosis, the number of chromosomes reduces

to 23.
During meiosis, a diploid cell (containing 2n number of chromosomes found in

the body cells) undergoes two specialized cell divisions, meiosis I and meiosis II, to

produce four haploid (containing n number of chromosomes) daughter cells.

Meiosis I consists of four stages, prophase I, metaphase I, anaphase I, and

telophase I. During prophase I, chromosomes thicken and condense. Homologous or

similar chromosomes come together in pairs, and chiasmata occur as chromatids of

homologues exchange parts. These similar groups of chromosomes pair up side by side.

Strands of protein "zip" the adjacent homologous chromosomes together to result in a

synaptic complex. Within the nucleus where this division is taking place, enzymes are

secreted. They snip the chromatids and reattach them. This leads to formation of
chiasmata, which are formed when one end of a chromatid of a paternal chromosome is

attached to the other end of a chromatid of a maternal chromosome in the pattern of

English alphabet X. Thus the maternal and paternal chromosomes have intertwined

forming crosses or chiasmata. Chiasmata are the sites where DNAs from father and

mother exchange producing chromosomes that consists of part of father chromosome and

part of mother chromosome and differs from that of either parents. This process is known

as cross-over. Thus two homologous chromosomes arising from individual parents as a

result of sexual reproduction give rise to two entirely different chromosomes with an

entirely new DNA structure.

In the next stage or metaphase I, these paired homologues move together to the

equator of the cell with the two members of each pair facing opposite ends of the cell

respectively. Then, the homologous chromosomes separate during anaphase I and cluster

in the opposing poles of the cell, ultimately to form two nuclei.

Finally, fusion of two genetically unique and different gametes or sex cells add

further genetic variability to the offspring. The possibility is immense. Mathematically

fusion of gametes from just two different people could produce 64 trillion genetically

different children. Another interesting fact is that the meiotic cell division is perfectly

suitable for sexual reproduction in human beings. Since there is reduction in number of

chromosomes, it creates provision for union of two haploid (cell with half chromosome

numbers) cells to produce a diploid (two halves combine to one full) offspring cell which

in the course of meiotic cell division has acquired chromosomal components from both

the parents resulting into an entirely new chromosome with unique genetic property, and

unique genetic property multiplied over generations leads to diversity.

Biology, Life on Earth by Audesirk, T and Audesirk, G, 4th Ed., Prentice Hall International Inc., 1996 Read More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“How does meiosis contribute to human genetic diversity Essay”, n.d.)
Retrieved from
(How Does Meiosis Contribute to Human Genetic Diversity Essay)
“How Does Meiosis Contribute to Human Genetic Diversity Essay”, n.d.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (1)
Click to create a comment or rate a document
blancawehner added comment 4 months ago
Student rated this paper as
This essay was always my weak point. I could never finish it on time. Still, after I found this precise document, I understood how it should be done. So, I performed my research afterward and completed the essay in several hours, instead of weeks as it was previously.

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF How does meiosis contribute to human genetic diversity

Human Genetic Engineering

..., CH 2009, Uncertain peril: genetic engineering and the future of seeds, Beacon Press. Coppel, RL & Nossal, GJV 1998, Reshaping life: key issues in genetic engineering, Melbourne University Publish. Gaita, R 1999, Good & evil: absolute concepts, Routledge. LeVine, H 2006, Genetic engineering: a reference handbook, ABC-CLIO. Library of Congress, 2002, Genetic engineering, human genetics, and cell biology: evolution of the technological issues, The Minerva Group, Inc. KOEPSELL, D 2007, 'THE ETHICS OF GENETIC ENGINEERING', Center for Enquiry, p. 22. Miller, HI & Conko, GP 2004, The frankenfood myth: how protest and politics threaten the biotech revolution, Greenwood Publishing Group. Newton, DE 2008, DNA evidence and forensic science, Infobase...
16 Pages(4000 words)Essay

Mapping Human Genetic Diversity on the Japanese Archipelago

... Ding, Liang-Qi, Wao, Chuan-Chao, Farina, E. Sara, and Li, Hu. “Mapping Human Genetic Diversity on the Japanese Archipelago”. Advances in anthropology 1.2 (2011): 19-25.Web. Article Analysis This paper strives to give an analysis of the article by Ding, Liang-Qi, Wao, Chuan-Chao, Farina, E. Sara, and Li, Hu, which is titled “Mapping Human Genetic Diversity on the Japanese Archipelago” and published in Advances in anthropology 1.2 (2011): 19-25. The article explores the origin and diversification of East Asian populations, specifically the Japanese people. The origin of the current population on the island of Japan remains unclear to date (Ding et al. 1). According to archeological evidence, “there might have been two waves of migration...
4 Pages(1000 words)Assignment

Human genetic enhancement

..., when future humans look back at this era, they’re going to see it as a primitive, difficult and challenging time” (Stock, Choosing our genes). CONCLUSION Technological advancements are not always embraced and in many cases raise eye-brows, these advancements include especially those involving genetic advancements and modulations of DNA. Yes, it is true that human genetic advancement does have some ethical drawbacks but its contribution towards the field of medical advancement cannot be denied. The U.S policy makers must take into consideration both pros and cons of the enhancement technology and restrain the over-usage of its application. Policies should cover each and every point under consideration and a proper monitoring methodology...
5 Pages(1250 words)Essay

Human genetic enhancement

... importance mainly because of the ability to avoid diseases in a pre-conception analysis offered by the company. Stein () explained the practicability of this advantage by stating how scientists from Oregon Health & Science University found out a way of replacing faulty DNA in a woman’s embryo with a healthy set of imported DNA. Human life longevity is another core merit that human genetic enhancement would offer. Through a germline intervention that Stock (2003) outlines, genetic enhancement could provide a possibility of bringing longevity in human life through the introduction of specific hormones that Hanna (2006) of NIH describes as significant for muscle growth. These include Mechano-growth factor (MGM) and IGF-1. Muscles are a key...
5 Pages(1250 words)Essay

Human genetic enhancement

... inquiry expand NIH support on human stem cell research and enhance American scientist's contribution in new discoveries enhance the reputation for the fact that the U.S.A houses the most powerful biometric research facility in the world. There are issues regarding human genetic modifications and they bring up major questions like what extent is permitted by law, the risk involved, and availability of research benefits to people from all walks of life, use of animal model with the aim of human application. Gene transfer at an embryonic stage through a technique called pronuclear micro injections is being tested in animals but based on the experiments it suggests that embryo gene transfer is unsafe and its use results in random integration...
5 Pages(1250 words)Essay

Human Genetic Diversity

...Contribution of meiosis to human genetic diversity Reproduction is the ability that only living beings have. Generally descendants have similarities with their ancestors, especially immediate ones. Reproduction of Asexual type, where only single individual is responsible, shows more similarity than that of the sexual type, where two individuals contribute, among siblings and that of with parents. The nucleus of the cell divides in four nuclei. This process of producing reproductive cell is called Meiosis.Meiosis, being sexual type of reproduction, results in genetic diversities among offspring. Reasons for this are Independent assortment of chromosomes, crossing over and random fertilization. There are several stages of Meiosis. First one...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

How does family contribute to juvenile delinquency

...JUVENILE DELINQUENCY How Does Family Contribute to Juvenile Delinquency? Tiffany Elmgren SOC10 Chaffey College How Does Family Contribute to JuvenileDelinquency? Juvenile Delinquency defined The Family and its Function Structural Functionalism and Juvenile Delinquency Definition The Theory and Juvenile Delinquency Example Conflict Theory and Juvenile Delinquency Definition The Theory and Juvenile Delinquency Example Symbolic Interactionism and Juvenile Delinquency Definition The Theory and Juvenile Delinquency Example How Does Family Contribute to Juvenile Delinquency? Juvenile Delinquency is defined as criminal behavior committed by minors (Siegel & Welsh, 2009). This social problem is perhaps one of the most controversial dilemmas faced...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Human genetic engineering

... of HGE, there still remain a lot of grey areas which regulators face difficulty to make decisions on. Arguments against Human Genetic Engineering The major argument against HGE has been on the infringement on ethical standards. While specifically referring to germline genetic engineering, Berry raises the concern that the procedure affects future generations (32). This is because, this procedure involves interference with the genetic composition of embryos, eggs and sperms with the results exhibited in the resultant offspring. With the difficulty in determining the effect of removing such genes, it becomes difficult to determine their impact on the gene pool of humans for future generations thus diminishing human gene pool diversity...
8 Pages(2000 words)Research Paper

Human genetic engineering

s of an organism and can either be positive or negative where negative brings a subject up to par while positive modifies genetic material to bring it beyond normal limitations (171-175). However, it is important to note that amid arguments and hot debate regarding genetic engineering, it is ethical to use technology in particular cases including altering cells and DNA to minimize disease effects and combating other genetic disorders. This article provides argument regarding human genetic engineering.
Biotechnology is the utilization of science and biology technology to alter the living or non-living materials for the production of knowledge, goods, services that are innovative and can improve people’s lives (Evans 44-48). It...
8 Pages(2000 words)Research Paper

Does Game Violence Make Teens Aggressive

All those teens showed great changes in their behavior, which was not in a positive manner. (Vorderer, pp. 69-72)
Furthermore, a number of studies (Kirsh, pp. 11-13) have shown that worse academic results are shown by the teens that play violent video games according to the National Institute on Media and Family. It is indicated by the researches (Kirsh, pp. 17-22) that violent games are preferred by more than seventy-five percent of teens that are interested in playing video games. One of the schools in Texas carried out a study of teens that play video games, and it found out that teachers complained of frequent arguments from the students that were involved in playing violent video games at home. In some cases, teens were...
8 Pages(2000 words)Essay

The Evolution of Human Resource Management

The employee was sent to HR for a final briefing where he mentioned that he had been requesting a change in the shift for the last few weeks he has to attend to his ailing father. His superior continuously ignored the request. The employee was skill and aptitude tested and reassigned to a different project.
This is a small incident where an HR professional can play a vital role. An organization is also constantly looking for such solutions from its Human Resource Department. It is this expertise and skill, which a budding professional from any institute should be equipped.
Such valuable certification programs initiated by the Human Resource Department surely help build a successful organization. The Human resource depart...
6 Pages(1500 words)Term Paper

Problems of Human Activities

... should be given single-minded support by the elected leaders so that they are able to fulfill their duties and succeed in deterring illegal immigration. 3. Degradation by Human activities: Forests: Forests pass through a very vulnerable stage and are heavily at risk especially during the summer season, when the temperatures are high and the air is dry and arid. The dry logs of wood and twigs act as potent tools for starting up a forest fire. The Fire Prevention Department work hard round the clock, not only to ensure the safety of the Forests or Parks but also spend valuable time in trying to inform and educate people on fire prevention and safety. Some of the other things that may contribute to the degradation of forests are human...
7 Pages(1750 words)Term Paper

Human Genetic Enhancement

When Leonardo De Vinci drew the first diagram of human wings, even he perhaps did not think that one day his fellow species would even think of having his own wings and that is not mechanical (Slater 57), rather a separate extension of his body just like his species gifted hands. But is that everything? Is it desirable to go against natural law? Is it desirable to create a world for superhumans more genetically enhanced and perhaps quite different from what we are to Genetic enhancement even speaks about trans species upper human combination of several species into one?
The philosophers, the economists, sociologists and people from the different arena of our society are expressing their views on the issue. If some are quite hop...
10 Pages(2500 words)Essay

Death Penalty: Does it Serve as a Deterrent to Future Crime

Animal instincts are directed towards self-preservation and it is the law of nature that a stronger and healthier individual has more chances of living than his weaker counterpart. The survival of the fittest has now been established as a ground reality according to Darwinian philosophy. If we eliminate our civilized thought process, it emerges as a stark reality that we would not desist from attacking another living person or animal when we are overcome by the basic needs of food, shelter, and clothing. In times of natural disasters like earthquakes, wars and floods, and manmade disasters like war, it is not uncommon to witness ravaged populations shedding the façade of civilization and resorting to violence in order to fu...
9 Pages(2250 words)Case Study

How Tomatoes Can Help Your Heart

Whether tomato is a fruit or vegetable? Well, this question can be answered in both ways. Botanically, tomato is a fruit but it is so frequently used as a culinary item all over the world, it is also considered as a vegetable. Long time back, the tomato was considered as fruit and helped the exporters to avoid taxation but 1893 the Supreme Court put an over this dispute by declaring that tomato was a vegetable and since that time onwards, tomatoes were taxed accordingly. Keeping in harmony with this tradition, till date tomatoes are served as entrée and very rarely as dessert. Apart from side dishes, wide array of main course dishes are also prepared from tomatoes and these dishes are regarded considered as lip-smacking cui...
6 Pages(1500 words)Case Study

Maintaining Credibility in a Diversity Classroom

 The reason for choosing the above universities for research purposes is stated by the authors as: “The academy is a microcosm of the larger society in which we live and that America and all Western society remain provinces in which white men, and some White women, of a particular class and with particular dominant ideologies determine the nature of all of our existences” (Perry et al, 2009, p.83). The article is well researched and presents data gathered from surveys and other quantitative methods used to gauge the responses of the instructors to the questionnaire presented to them.

The second article is more to do with addressing the question of diversity in schools and the ways and means to make it p...
6 Pages(1500 words)Article

Diversity Management in Organisations

...Managing Diversity in Workforce Contents Introduction 2. Diversity Management: Challenges and Benefits 2 3. Managing Diversity 3 3 Significance of Involvement culture 3 3.2 Impact of Organizational Ethnicity on diversity 4 4. Best Practices to Manage Diversity 4 5. Conclusion 5 6. Bibliography 6 1. Introduction “Diversity” characterizes the massive amount of individual divergences that subsists amid persons. Workforce diversity is a gathering of the resemblances and discrepancies between workers in such sorts as “age, sexual category, cultural inheritance, physical capability and race.” (POLLITT, David, 2006) As of today, diversity in the place of work is widely acknowledged as an advantage that contributes to a business institution’s base...
6 Pages(1500 words)Case Study

Project Planning Human Capital

Project planning involves a lot of factors and areas that we need to address for the effective management and handling of the project. The aim of this report is to provide a deep insight into some of the main areas that we need to address for the project of Adams's family farmhouse renovation. These issues are project team communication, project risk management, and deadline handling. Effective communication in a project provides a huge advantage regarding the better working and handling of the project. I have selected a very significant project regarding the preservation of the old and historical places. Here we require effective communication to provide better interaction among the designer, developers, and history preservation...
8 Pages(2000 words)Coursework

Universal Declaration of Human Rights

... and conventions relating to human rights were enacted6 (I don’t understand this does it read right) Please put examples of the treaties and conventions in the footnotes. These were rendered binding law, in the states, where they had been ratified. Thus, whenever a member state of the United Nations ratifies to a convention, it implies that the country, in question, consents to adhere to the provisions of that convention. Moreover, such nations declare their willingness to alter their domestic laws, so that their national legislation is in conformity with the convention.7 Furthermore, such countries agree to report on the progress made in this endeavour to the UN. UN Charter Human rights constitute an important aspect of the UN Charter...
8 Pages(2000 words)Case Study

What Is the Hybrid Warfare and What Challenges Does It Present

...The term HYBRID warfare is increasingly used to describe current and future conflict; what is it and what challenges does it present? The end of theCold War and the events of 9/11 have provided a catalyst for unprecedented challenges to the international order and national security policy. Arguably the most important challenge has been the appropriate and most efficacious method to combat a transient and intangible enemy, which transcends borders and the conventional notion of an organised army that “yet has shown a remarkable resilience against traditional military firepower”1. Moreover, Mahmood’s observations highlight the changing nature of conflict and the fact that the contemporary international framework has removed pre-existing...
7 Pages(1750 words)Article
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic How does meiosis contribute to human genetic diversity for FREE!

Contact Us