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Depression - Essay Example

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Depression [Institution] Depression Depression is a psychological state which not only presents pathological sadness but is also accompanied with the inability to feel any sort of emotion be it bad or good (Beck & Alford, 2009). The disease is not only restricted to the mind but also has effects on the body…
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Depression Depression Depression is a psychological which not only presents pathological sadness but is also accompanied with the inability to feel any sort of emotion be it bad or good (Beck & Alford, 2009). The disease is not only restricted to the mind but also has effects on the body. The definition of depression has defined differently in different cultures and has been accompanied extreme pain and headaches. The etiological factors of the disease are not well defined, however, there have been some researches linking depression to genetic and epigenetic factors (Beck & Alford, 2009). According to surveys carried out in the United States, approximately 20% of the population has suffered or is suffering from depression (McHugh & Slavey, 2011). In addition, a large number of individuals have this disorder without knowing that they have a psychological problem. An individual’s sex also predisposes his or her to depression as women have been found to be three times more susceptible to depressive disorders than men. However, the impacts depression have on men are more severe and depressed males have been found to be more likely to commit suicide than women. Explains for the high prevalence of depression among women have been based on their hormonal difference to men, whilst males have been found to be more susceptible to committing suicide due to their societal roles (McHugh & Slavey, 2011). There have been different types of depression that have been defined with major depression being the most severe. The symptoms that are associated with this type of depression include a defined phase of low mood. Individuals often mistake the emotion of being sad with depression; however, there is a clear distinction between the two factors. Low mood is acute and is directly related to some external stimulus and can be alleviated by altering some lifestyle aspects. However, depression is more chronic and is accompanied by a constantly low move that alters an individual’s perception on life and may affect his or her daily routines. Depression is also expressed in different intensities and it can last for a period of two years or more which is referred to as dysthymic depression. Individuals who suffer from this form of depression are often very resistant to treatment and are also likely to experience a period of major depression (Ellison-Wright & Bullmore, 2010). These individuals do not constantly show major depressive signs but their presentations are also important. Depression is also a sign of different psychological disorders and an example of such a disease is Bipolar I and Bipolar II (Ellison-Wright & Bullmore, 2010). These two disorders are both accompanied with a depressive episode which is more significant in patients experiencing Bipolar II disorder. Individuals with this order often experience spontaneous mood swings hence their depressive episode is often a significant burden on their caregivers (Ellison-Wright & Bullmore, 2010). Depression has been found to be the fastest rising disorder in terms of pharmacological expenses. Presently, it is estimated to have a cost of approximately $40 billion (Fournier et al., 2010). Currently it is only second to cancerous pathologies; however it is expected to be the highest by the year 2020. However, there have been several conspiracy theories surrounding depression and its presentation by pharmaceutical companies. Several experts have accused these companies of misrepresenting bad mood as depression there resulting in the increasing expenses (Fournier et al., 2010). There have been several factors attributed to the increase in the rates of depression. One is the increase in the number of smokers and alcohol abusers as these drugs have been found to increase the occurrence of depression (Beck & Alford, 2009). Smoking has been found by several scientists to create a misbalance in the physiological neurochemical composition of an individual. As mentioned above, genetic factors also have a role in the pathogenesis of depression and they also have an influence on the neurochemical composition of an individual (Beck & Alford, 2009). Specifically, these genes decrease the amount of neurotransmitters that are responsible for regulating moods and emotions. Studies assessing the prevalence of depression among identical and fraternal twins showed that environmental factors also had a role in the expression of depression (Beck & Alford, 2009). In summation, depression is a psychological disorder of multifactorial etiology that is expressed in many psychological conditions. There have several studies which link this condition to genetics, however, there environmental factors have a significant role to play in the summation of the disease. Therefore, these should be addressed in order to reduce the expression of depression. Depression is a psychological disorder that is increasing in prevalence and this has been indicated in the number increasing costs of depression pharmaceuticals. The appropriate intervention methods should be taken for these individuals as the disorder may lead individuals to committing suicide. References Beck, A. T., & Alford, B. A. (2009). Depression: Causes and treatments. University of Pennsylvania Press. Ellison-Wright, I., & Bullmore, E. (2010). Anatomy of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia: a meta-analysis. Schizophrenia research, 117(1), 1-12. Fournier, J. C., DeRubeis, R. J., Hollon, S. D., Dimidjian, S., Amsterdam, J. D., Shelton, R. C., & Fawcett, J. (2010). Antidepressant drug effects and depression severity. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 303(1), 47-53. McHugh, P. R., & Slavney, P. R. (2011). The perspectives of psychiatry. JHU Press. Read More
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The topic of "depression" is quite popular among the assignments in university. Still, this paper opens a new perspective of seeing the question. I’ll use the style for my own essay.

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