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TOXOPLASNOSIS Name Instructor Date TOXOPLASNOSIS In the world, there has been the emergence of various infections. Most of these infections have become a serious area of heath care concern. However, there has been little interest on some of the infections…
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Download file to see previous pages The disease is caused by the protozoan parasites known as Toxoplasma gondii (Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine, 2013). The parasite has been found in various parts of the world, in many species. Most of the species includes carnivorous and herbivorous mammals and birds. Moreover, the disease is prevalent in all human population. However, the carrier of the parasite is usually the cat and is primarily associated with the transmission of parasites in all human population (David et al., n.d.). The infection is usually reported having spread in human by eating contaminated meat especially pork and lamb (David et al., n.d.). On the other hand, the parasite has been shown to be prevalent in women of childbearing age usually 15 to 44 years of age (David et al., n.d.). As a result, the parasite has attracted attention of healthcare provider in pregnant women. The parasite is transmitted in various ways. The major form of transmission is through food (Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 2013). Most, the tissue form of parasites is transmitted to human through the food. The transmission occurs through eating undercooked or contaminated meat, failure to wash hand after handling contaminated meat, and eating food on utensils that had contact with raw contaminated meat (CDC, 2013). Secondly, transmission may occur from animal to human. Usually cats are infected by eating infected animals (CDC, 2013). Consequently, the parasite is shed in cat faeces as oocyst. As a result, people are infected in various ways. The infection may occur through ingestion of oocyst after cleaning a cat’s litter box, ingestion of oocyst after touching or ingesting anything in proximity with cats faeces, or drinking water that have parasites from a cat’s faeces (CDC, 2013). Moreover, infection can be passed from mother to unborn child. The infection occurs during pregnancy where parasites pass to the unborn child (CDC, 2013). Additionally, the parasites may be passed through organ transplant. The recipient may get parasites if the donor has already been infected by the parasite (CDC, 2013). However, it is rare for the parasite to be passed through blood donation. In most cases, the parasite affects people without being noticed. In fact, the infection is asymptomatic in 80% of people (Department of Health, 2007). However, the most common sign in individuals infected with the parasite is enlarged lymph nodes usually around the neck (Department of Health, 2007). The other symptoms include muscle pain, intermittent fever and malaise (Department of Health, 2007). The infection arising after birth mostly leads to mild illness. On the other hand, dominant infection may occur in a lifetime. However, the symptoms may reactivate once an individual immune system is compromised. In immune suppressed patients, the disease may develop with serious complications such as in the heart, brain, and pneumonia (Department of Health, 2007). Most of the complications lead to death. In individuals with AIDS, cerebral toxoplasmosis is frequent form of complication (Department of Health, 2007). On the other hand, severe toxoplasmosis during pregnancy may affect the unborn child (Department of Health, 2007). The infection leads to serious complications such as brain damage, liver damage, and spleen and eye disorders. Moreover, infection during pregnancy leads to severe complications for the foetus. The ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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