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Microbio - Essay Example

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Name: Instructor: Source: Date: The Innate and the Acquired Immune Responses Innate immunity is the first defense line of the body against bacteria. It is a non-specific host form defense that works against microorganisms that invade the body. The innate immunity components include; anatomical barriers, tissue bactericides such as complement, intact normal flora, as well as, the ability to experience inflammatory, and, phagocytic responses…
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Download file to see previous pages 84). It displays immunological memory through which it recalls having encountered an invading organism thus reacting more rapidly on the same organism on subsequent exposure. This paper is a discussion that compares and contrasts the innate and the acquired immune responses. When a person comes into contact with an infectious agent, the first defenses to counter the infection are physical, as well as, chemical barriers like; antimicrobial proteins that are secreted at mucosal surfaces, which deny the microbes from getting into the body. In the case that these barriers are overwhelmed, or dodged, other immune system components get into action. The complement system is able to recognize the foreign organisms, as well as, phagocytic white blood cells like the innate immune system macrophages and neutrophils, and destroy them immediately (Minnicozzi 115) In contrast, the acquired immune response, also referred to as the adaptive immune system, develops in days. It is, however, able to eliminate infections in a more efficient way due to the lymphocytes exquisitely recognition functions that are specific. These cells are able to respond to every antigen through antigen receptors that are highly specialized which are present on the lymphocytes surface. The lymphocytes present in the body in their billions, possess a vast range of antigen receptors collectively, which make it possible for the immune system to identify, and take action to virtually any antigen an individual may be exposed to. This enables the adaptive immunity to focus on overcoming the pathogens that have eluded or overcome the innate immunity. Additionally, the innate immunity defense systems are effective in battling many pathogens. However, they are constrained by their reliance on germline-encoded receptors in order for them to identify microorganisms that have the ability to evolve more rapidly than the infected host. This is why they are able to only identify microorganisms that bear surface molecules, which are common to most pathogens conserved over the evolution course. Most pathogenic bacteria contain a protective capsule that has evolved that makes it possible for them to hide these molecules making it difficult for them to be recognized and phagocytosed. Viruses do not carry invariant molecules like those of bacteria, and the macrophages rarely recognizes them. However, viruses, as well as, encapsulated bacteria may nevertheless be picked by dendritic cells via the macropinocytosis nonreceptor-dependent process. This may then reveal the molecules that mask their infectious nature activating the dendritic cell to present the antigens that belong to them to lymphocytes. (Kobayashi et al. 5123). All the blood cellular elements such as the red blood cells which transport oxygen, platelets for triggering blood clot in tissues that are damaged, and the immune system white blood cells, originate from the bone marrow’s hematopoietic stem cells. Since these stem cells have the ability to produce every different blood cell types, they are mainly referred to as pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells. They give rise to additional limited developmental potential that are the instant progenitors of platelets, red blood cells, and the two major ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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