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Effects of Drugs on Neurotransmission - Essay Example

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The human body consists of various systems, which include the circulatory, nervous, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and endocrine arrangements…
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Effects of Drugs on Neurotransmission
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Download file to see previous pages This means that alteration of the conditions that are favorable for cells to be alive leads to the death of the organelles. The various systems, therefore, have to ensure that the internal conditions of the body are favorable for cells to live; this state is known as homeostasis (Cooper, 2011). The favorable conditions are achieved when the systems ensure that the internal environment remains constant. The process of maintaining the constant conditions is known as the regulation of homeostasis. The process of regulating homeostasis involves three parts that include the effectors, control centers, and the receptors (Cooper, 2011). These parts standardize the internal conditions whenever external circumstances fluctuate. The receptor is in charge of collecting information from the external environment; for example, when the weather changes from hot to cold, these elements record this change. The receptor then transfers the information to the control center. The center is in charge of processing the information received from the receptor. The center then determines the change that should occur in the internal environment to ensure that it does not fluctuate like the surrounding. The center commands the effectors to execute the change (Cooper, 2011). This process is repeated whenever the surrounding conditions fluctuate, and this maintains homeostasis in the body. The change that the center would produce in case of cold weather would be increasing the body temperature. The effectors increase the temperature after receiving the command from the center.

The nervous system is in charge of controlling other arrangements in the body because it consists of the brain, which is the main body regulator. The systems consist of the brain, neurons, and neurotransmitters. The neurons produce various types of transmitters such as serotonin and dopamine. The neurotransmitters transfer signals to the effectors and receptors in chemical form (Sherman, 2007); therefore, any interference with this process may damage the brain or hinder its efficient functioning. Methods by which Various Drugs Alter Neurotransmission Drug abuse is one of the processes that damage the brain and hinder the efficient functioning of the neurotransmitters. Drugs such as heroine stimulate the production of excess receptors in the brain. The increase in opioids in the brain also increases the production of dopamine. Cocaine, on the other hand, enters the neuromembrane by clinging on dopamine transmitters (Sherman, 2007). This blocks dopamine from entering into the transmitters, and it leads to the increase of these organelles in the synapse. The increase in the dopamine in the synapse leads to the desire for more cocaine, which consequently leads to addiction. Alcohol is another drug that affects neurotransmission by altering the shape and structure of the neuromembrane, enzymes, ions, and receptors. The use of alcohol also blocks the receptors that take place in the synaptic process, which is responsible for helping an individual to learn and remember things (Sherman, 2007). Caffeine, which is contained in drinks such as coffee affects the process of transmitting neurons by preventing adenosine from connecting to its receptor. Adenosine is responsible for inducing sleep in a person. This means that individuals lack sleep when adenosine fails to perform its function efficiently. These disruptions of the neurotransm ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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