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Biology 206 U3IP - Research Paper Example

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Date Questions Student Response Part I Original DNA Strand: 3’-T A C C C T T T A G T A G C C A C T-5’ Transcription (base sequence of RNA): A U G G G A A A U C A U C G G U G A Translation (amino acid sequence): Methionine+glycine + Asparagine+ histidine+ arginine+ STOP Mutated gene sequence one: 3’-T A C G C T T T A G T A G C C A T T-5' Transcription (base sequence of RNA): A U GC G A A A U C A U C G G U A A Translation (amino acid sequence): Methionine + arginine+ asparagine + histidine + arginine + STOP Mutated gene sequence two: 3’-T A A C C T T T A C T A G G C A C T-5’ Transcription (base sequence of RNA): A U U G G A A A U G A U C C G U G A Translation (amino acid …
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Biology 206 U3IP
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Download file to see previous pages The last codons, UAA, UAG, and UGA, signal the STOP, the conclusion of the translation (National Center for Biotechnology Information, 2000). What meaning do these mRNA codons have for protein synthesis? Explanation: Messenger RNA are the carriers of information. They form them into groups of 3 words, which identify specific amino acids that can then create a protein chain (Clancy & Brown , 2008). Did the two mutations result in a change in the final proteins? If so, describe the change. Response/ explanation: Yes, in the first mutation, eliminated the glycine and included an extra element of arginine. The second mutation was drastically different from the first. Glycine has returned, along with asparagines, but the other three positions have taken by three different sequences that are not reflective of the first sequence. In general, why might a change in amino acid sequence affect protein function? Explanation: Even a single change in amino acid sequences can affect the proteins ability to function. For example, the disease sickle cell anemia is caused by the change in only a single nucleotide in the DNA sequence can cause deformation in the red blood cells that can prevent it from carrying oxygen efficiently or successfully (Carter, 2004). Part II Punnett Square a. Chances (%) for healthy child, not a carrier b. Chances (%) for child that is carrier for cystic fibrosis trait c. Chances (%) for child with cystic fibrosis Fill out/adapt Punnett Square: __C____ __c___ ___C___ CC Cc ___c___ Cc cc a. Chances (%) for healthy child, not a carrier: 25% b. % for child that is carrier for cystic fibrosis trait: 50% c. % for child with cystic fibrosis: 25% Part III: Essay How do both meiosis and sexual reproduction (fertilization) produce offspring that differ genetically from the parents? Include steps in meiosis that increase variability Include the process of fertilization. Explanation: Meiosis, in a basic definition is the process of cell division that lessens the number of chromosomes in the reproductive cells from diploid to haploid, which allows for the production of gametes in animals and spores in plants. Meiosis involves 2 steps, Meiosis I and Meiosis II, which then breaks into a number of phases, including interphase, metaphase, and telephase. Meiosis provides three specific mechanisms allowing for the diversifying of the genomes of offspring. Crossing Over, which occurs during meiosis when two chromosomes will pair up and exchange segments, with non-sister, cells, of their genetic materials. This allows for greater diversity to exist. Next is Random Assortment, basically, this process occurs when the when the “orientation” of the maternal and paternal homologues, within the first portion of the meiosis I, is genuinely random. Traits can be traded at randomly. The possible result of random assortment in humans can, more than, 8,000,000, potential, combinations (Chowdhury, Bois, Feingold,, Sherman & Cheung, 2009). Fertilization, with the reduction of chromosomes it allows for the “ ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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