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The invitro effect of sildenafil citrate on the outcome of pregnancy in mice and offsprings - Literature review Example

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The Invitro Effect of Sildenafil Citrate on the Outcome of Pregnancy in Mice and Offspring Student ID Number: Code: PhD Embryology. Date: Infertility is the inability of a woman to conceive a baby after a year of progress unprotected sex (Zegers-Hochschild et al, 2009)…
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The invitro effect of sildenafil citrate on the outcome of pregnancy in mice and offsprings
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Download file to see previous pages Other medications that can be put to use to make infertile women conceive a baby includes the controlled ovarian stimulation, intrauterine insemination (IUI), and ovulation induction. Although the use of ART can result to a successful pregnancy, not all women who undergo ART can become pregnant. Infertility may occur in all types of species; whether human or animals. This chapter tries to investigate the expression of PDE5 in the pre-implantation embryos and the effect of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) on pre-implantation murine embryo development in vitro. Sildenafil is a special drug with a nitric oxide effects on vascular smooth muscles. Randomly selected mice were divided into two groups. One group was hyper stimulated group whereas the other was hyper stimulated plus sildenafil citrate group. The mice were injected with human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG), and later they received human chorionic gonadotropic (HCG) hormones. Afterwards, two female mice were put in one cage with one male mouse for mating process (Rashidi, Rad, Roshangar, & Mira, 2012). For a period of three days, the hyper stimulated plus sildenafil citrate group was injected with three mg of sildenafil citrate after every 24 hours. This was done after the mice had received the HMG injection. Ninety six hours of HMG injection later a cervical dislocation was done, and their urine specimens were prepared for laboratory tests; electron microscope studies. After the study, it was realized that there was long and short microvilli in the control group while no observable pinopodes development. On the other hand, the other hyper stimulated plus sildenafil citrate group experienced pinopodes development after injecting the mice with HMG after four days. This study brings to the attention on how import hyper stimulation of mice with sildenafil citrate can be. For instance, it helps in formation of pinopodes and implantation. Failure of implantation is one of the major problems in infertility treatment. In addition, implantation is believed to be one of the most interesting biological events. Implantation failure can be as a result of impaired uterine receptivity caused by high concentration of serum estradiol, which is induced by an ovulation induction treatment. Appearance of pinopodes is a specific morphological marker that has been associated with window of implantation (Rashidi, Rad, Roshangar, & Mira, 2012). The pinopodes are found in mice and rats but lack in other animals and humans. These are surface projections of the endometrial cell, which are involved in uterine pinocytosis. These pinopodes are essential in the implantation window, and for this reason, it is of note for them to be developed in mice at-time to facilitate implantation. The use of sildenafil citrate can maintain effectively the vasodilatory effects of the Nitrogen Oxide by blocking the breakdown of cGMP. Reducing the problems associated with the development of a foetus is possible through proper facilitation of blood to the endometrial lining. In addition, enhancing the flow of blood to the endometrium lining will help reduce the risk of maternal hemodynamic complications. Also known as Viagra TM or RevatioTM, ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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