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Carbohydrate Nutrition and Glucose Homeostasis,on Type 2 diabetes - Essay Example

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Introduction Diabetes is one of the most deadly diseases in the world today, and it is in fact, among those diseases that have high mortality rates. The number of people with this disease is steadily rising and this has raised a lot of concern among governments and medical practitioners…
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Carbohydrate Nutrition and Glucose Homeostasis,on Type 2 diabetes
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Download file to see previous pages It has been estimated the risk of developing heart diseases more than doubles within the first few years of the discovery of diabetes in individuals. In addition, more than seventy-five percent of the people who have diabetes are at risk of dying because of heart disease, a situation that is indeed scary for those concerned. Diabetes mellitus Diabetes is a metabolic disorder that is categorized by chronic hyperglycaemia with instabilities of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism that come about due to defects in the secretion of insulin, the inaction of insulin or both in the body (Guthrie 2009, p.3). Diabetes mellitus affects people when the pancreas cannot secrete enough insulin, which is the hormone that the body uses to regulate the level of sugar in the blood or when the human body cannot effectively make use of the insulin produced. There are four types of diabetes namely type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, secondary diabetes that may be due to damage to the pancreas and gestational diabetes, which occurs when a person is in pregnancy. Prevalence Estimates show that about 347 million in the world are suffering from diabetes while in the year 2004 alone, 3.4 million people died due to the effects related to diabetes complications mostly in low and middle-income economies. Projections by the World Health Organization indicate that diabetes will be the 7th leading cause of death in the year 2030 (Leroith 2012, p.43). The prevalence of diabetes generally in the world is increasing at a faster rate that can be attributed to the decreased physical activity and poor eating lifestyles. There is however little data on the prevalence of type 2 diabetes as this varies with other factors such as ethnicity and the degree at which a person accesses social amenities. Estimates on prevalence range in the region of 3.5 to 5% for example the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) suggest that 4% of persons in the age group of 20 to 79 years have type 2 diabetes in the US with a further death 4.2% in men who have diabetes and &.7% in women with similar condition. Therefore, type 2 is the most dominant type of diabetes since it accounts for about 90% of persons suffering from diabetic conditions. Diagnosed and Undiagnosed Diabetes among Persons of Age 20 Years and above in United States as at the year 2010 Source: National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse 2011 Diagnosed and Undiagnosed Diabetes Source: National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse 2011 Blood glucose regulation in the body Glucose is the essential source of energy for the body’s cells and tissues. In grownups without diabetes, glucose is maintained at a level of 70-99 mg/dL maintained by hormones, the metabolic requirements of the person and the nervous system. When a person is not eating, the liver stores glucose in the form of glycogen that helps to keep the body at a normal functioning range. At this moment, insulin is not at work and only the hormone glucagon breaks down the glycogen; moreover, at any given time muscles store glucose that is burnt for energy. When a person eats and food is digested, the pancreas is triggered to release insulin from the beta cells that is used to breakdown the glucose for the cells for energy or to be stored as fat. Any moment that the system that provides glucose to the cells breakdowns or is not regulated in an organized manner, the person is likely to develop diabetes (American Diabetes Association 2004) Type 1 Diabetes The American Diabetes ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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