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Brainscapes - Case Study Example

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Student: Professor: Course: Date: Questions and Answers 1. Sodium Concentration and Hippocampus Atrophy Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) usually projects images in form of resonance signals based on nuclei properties of magnetic properties of hydrogen ions and other present ions…
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Download file to see previous pages Concentration of sodium (Na+) ions in the intracellular and extracellular space of tissues was the major identifier of hippocampus atrophy (with dead neurons). According to this case, brain tissues showing signs of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) had dead neurons and appear smaller than usual by expansion of the extracellular space and shrinkage of intracellular space. 2. Expected Sodium Concentration Changes The change of sodium concentration in the hippocampus region is used to differentiate healthy tissues from diseased ones in that unhealthy tissues have shrunk. It follows then that the hippocampus volume or processes are directly correlated with sodium concentration within and without the extracellular and intracellular space. Decreased volume of the hippocampus can possibly occur when neurons inside have died or are not functioning at their optimum levels. One expected change or difference is a difference in concentration of sodium ions in extracellular space and intracellular space commonly called a gradient difference. This differential concentration of sodium gradient normally occurs due to defects of Na+/K+ ATPase pump which may be blocked. Brain tissues afflicted by AD usually have a smaller volume than normal ones and identified by extracellular space that is expanded as well as shrinkage of the intracellular space. 3. Additional Information from Outside Sources Journal Article: Tissue Sodium Concentration in Human Brain Tumors as Measured with 23Na MR Imaging. Sourced from Radiology Journal Journal article: Brain tissue sodium concentration in multiple sclerosis: a sodium imaging study at 3 tesla. Sourced from National Center for Biotechnology Information database Journal Article: Na+ and K+ ion imbalances in Alzheimer's disease. Sourced from National Center for Biotechnology Information database Journal article: Distribution of Brain Sodium Accumulation Correlates with Disability in Multiple Sclerosis: A Cross-sectional 23Na MR Imaging Study. Sourced from Radiology Journal 4. Outside Sources Contribution to the case The source (Ouwerkerk, Ronald, et al.) asserts that the concentration gradient difference of Na in tissues can be used to differentiate healthy tissues from affected one. Another source (Inglese, M., et al.) has findings that mechanisms of injury can be diagnosed through Na magnetic imaging. The third source (Vitvitsky V.M.) is of the opinion that failure of previous research come up with findings on cell homeostasis can be a basis of understanding development and progression of AD. Finally the last source (Zaaraoui, Wafaa, et al.) comes up with the finding that tissue injury can be diagnosed with NA imaging. 5. Case Study Finding that is Consistent with other Sources All the sources normally use differential concentration gradient of sodium in the intracellular space and extracellular space to come up with their findings. In this manner, atrophic tissues are identified from healthy ones after imaging. 6. Inconclusive information with Sodium Concentration Changes Although using differential concentration to assay for atrophic tissues and organs can be very effective, it can also give wrong misdiagnosis especially when movement of sodium ions is impeded by other factors. For example, there can be sodium ions leakage due to a defective Na+K+ ATPase pump. 7. Resolution of the Case Sodium imaging can be a helpful technique ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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