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Clinical Immunology: Case Study - Essay Example

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The paper “Clinical Immunology: Case Study” will analyze a case study where the patient, Christopher was given a series of allergen skin prick tests. He was shown to be diagnostically sensitive to milk, egg white, cod, peanuts, tree nuts, mold spore, and animal dander…
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Clinical Immunology: Case Study
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Download file to see previous pages Those who test positively in the SPT will have higher concentrations of specific IgE’s than those who are negative. 3. With milk being one of the first allergens often introduced to the system a study completed by the Institute of Medical and Chemical Laboratory Diagnostic determined a major allergen of milk is alphas1-casein. This can be shown through the expression of the allergen as escherichia coli (Schulmeister,et al, 2009). There are numerous proteins in milk which have been shown to be allergens with most of these containing several epitopes which are allergenic (Crittenden, and Bennett, 2009). This is further complicated because the reactions derived from cow’s milk are a combination of immunological reactions. With egg allergens primarily affecting the skin they most commonly cause eczema as a symptom of the allergy. Egg proteins which have been identified as allergens are located primarily in egg whites ( Hildebrandt,Steinhart, Paschke. 2008:1088). These proteins are conalbumin, ovalbumin, ovomucoid and lysozyme. Though these proteins make up close to 80% of the proteins the specific allergenicity of each protein is not known. Lysozyme has been shown in some studies to be the weakest of the allergens (Hoffman, 1983). The major allergens of peanuts have been recognized as seed storage protein and an allergic response to other tree nuts is likely because they contain very similar protein allergens (Barre, et al, 2008:1231). Because there is still some controversy over the relationship of peanuts and tree nuts it is still crucial to avoid both. To determine the similarities the seed storage protein surfaces must be further studied for similarities. 4. While TH1 and TH2 develop and evolve from the same precursor cell it is activated TH2 cells which produce IL-4, IL-13, and IL-5 cytokines. It is the failure of TH1 allergen specific response to convert to a TH1 response which is associated with an increased allergy response due to less microbial exposure early in life (Sudha, et al, 2010: 66).The cytokine IL-4 initiates a switch to producing IgE due to differentiating B cells. Sudha noted there was a strong correlation of IL-4 and IL-5 in most cases of allergic rhinitis, uriticaria and allergic asthma in patients. IL-13 was noted only in those patients with uriticaria or skin issues. IL-13 is similar to IL-4 while regulating to some degree IgE though unlike IL-4 it plays no part in regulating T cell differentiation and has no effect on T cells. IL-4 is a major target for therapeutic agents in treating atopic disease. There increase is an assurance of higher IgE production which lead to allergic reaction. IL-4 and IL-13 are known cytokines which are involved in the pathology of allergies and allergic asthma. TH17 cells are different from TH1 and TH2 cells. TH17 cells are proposed to play an important role in various disorders previously considered to be TH2 disorders such as allergic conditions (Yang, 2012: 236). Though TH17 cells have only recently began to be scrutinized and studied they are thought to induce and organize the inflammation of tissue (Sallusto and Lanzavecchia, 2009:622). TH17 cells produce IL-17 while IL-17 along with IL-22 create a large tissue reaction as these cells are broadly distributed. ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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