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Cellular and Molecular Pathology - Essay Example

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Cellular and molecular pathology Name: Institution: Date: 1. The most suitable method of removing adequate tissue for histopathological examination and the most reliable way of making sure you get the correct tissue needed Materials to be used in histological preparations are removed from anaesthetized animals…
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Download file to see previous pages In obtaining the right tissue for the examination, there are two distinct methods that can be employed. That is the physical examination technique and the liver biopsy technique. During physical examination, the medical history of the suspected patient is checked and more attention is paid to the patient’s abdomen. Presence of lumps in the liver can be felt as a patient lies flat with the liver being swollen. Other cases present an enlarged spleen and ability to hear a unique sound/noise when a stethoscope is used to listen to the blood vessels. The noise is usually caused by tumor pressure on the vessels. Liver biopsy is the appropriate method that can be used in obtaining materials for the study. In this case, a definite diagnosis is provided. It is appropriate since it deals with the actual tissues and fluids from the liver thus giving appropriate results rather than the suspect results as provided by the physical method of testing. Liver biopsy is done through obtaining a sample of the liver or rather a tissue fluid using a fine needle. The obtained tissue or fluid is prepared and checked under the observation microscope for the presence of cancer cells. In many incidences, about 70% biopsy shows a positive result for cancer (Brown, 2010). However, in fewer situations, there are risks involved whereby about 0.4% of the cases, some patients develop severe blood loss since a number of tumors are supplied with major and numerous blood vessels thus the heavy bleeding. 2. Methods of fixation and processing that are most suitable for the studies to be performed a) Tissue fixation Fixation is the process by which obtained tissue samples are preserved in a life –like state preventing damage and distortions and is always carried out sooner after tissue removal through surgeries and immediately after death in the case of autopsies. There are several fixatives such as alcohols, mercurials, oxidizing agents, picrates and aldehydes. In this case I would prefer the use of formaldehyde which is also regarded as a combination of formalin and glutaraldehyde. The choice is coherently based on the neutral nature of the formaldehyde solution and the ability to penetrate the tissues cells thus encouraging visibility during the observation time. Formaldehyde has a standard solution hydrogen potential at 10% buffered formalin. The buffer is significant in prevention of acidity that would in turn cause precipitation of the formol-heme tint in the tissues. Formalin has an osmotic pressure that is equal to that of the mammalian cells thus preventing the tissue structure changes due to its reaction. The ratio of the fixative to be used stands at 10:1 to the fixative tissue. The fixative specimen would also boost the fixation process. The process of fixation is also increased by altering the temperature which when increased increases all chemical reactions. In the event where the hematoxylin and esion tissues are to be obtained for a pathology test, formalin is a recommended fixative to be used in the preservation process of the tissues since it is more tolerant and harmless to the tissues (Pathol, 2010). Formalin and alcohol are considered as the best fixatives that penetrate the tissues. Penetration is faster in thin sections compared to thick sections of tissues. However, formalin is only recommended for shirt time fixation and cannot be used in the preservation of skeletal specimens since after a long duration it softens the bones and changes the color of ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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