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Molecular regulation of actin dynamics in breast cancer - Essay Example

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Subject: Health Sciences and Medicine, Essay   Topic Title: Molecular Regulation of Actin Dynamics in Breast Cancer. Date: 17th December 2012 Abstract Breast cancer is diagnosed in women worldwide and is a leading cause of breast-related mortality. Cancer cells migration is an essential stage of breast cancer metastasis…
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Molecular regulation of actin dynamics in breast cancer
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Download file to see previous pages Actin, a prominent protein in the cytoskeleton is highly expressed in the nucleus of normal and cancerous cells and its regulation is an important molecular event in the progression of cancer where it plays crucial roles in the cell motility and migration. It is associated in protein-protein interaction. Actin-binding proteins (ABP) are involved in the molecular regulation of actin structure and dynamics where they modulate the nucleation of new actin filament. Consequently, the activities of ABP are regulated by various signaling pathways so that there is an appropriate spatial and temporal regulation of actin dynamics in cells. The Rho-family GTPases are the most explored actin binding protein and they include RhoA which modulates the formation of contractile stress fibers. The Rac1 activates the formation of lamellipodial actin filament network at the leading edge in motile cells. Membrane phophoinositides are also involved in the regulation of actin dynamics. These molecules associate with actin binding protein ultimately regulating the activity of actin. Metastasis plays a prominent role in the pathogenesis of cancer and identification of the mechanism influencing this metastasis is essential in the development of appropriate breast cancer treatment procedures. Metastasis is a complex process encompassing different steps such as neurovascularization, stromal invasion and infiltration of cancer cells into vascular and lymphatic spaces. Introduction Breast cancer is diagnosed in women all over the world and breast cancer metastasis is a leading cause of breast-related mortality in over 90% of cancer patients’ population (Ferlay et al., 2007). Motility of cancer cells is essential in the initial stage of breast cancer metastasis. Identifying the factors facilitating this motility is essential in establishing the contributing factors towards cancer invasion and metastasis. The eukaryotic cell is made of a filamentous network of microfilaments, intermediate filaments and microtubules. This structure is collectively referred to as the cytoskeleton. The cytoplasmic network has long been associated with cell motility and proliferation but studies have shown that actin, a prominent protein in the cytoskeleton is also highly expressed in the nucleus of normal and cancerous cells (Jockusch et al., 2006). Actin cytoskeleton regulation is an important molecular event in the progression of cancer and it plays crucial roles in the cell motility and migration. Among the abundant proteins in eukaryotic cell, actin is the most abundant (Dominguez and Holmes, 2011). This protein is involved in maintaining the complex internal infrastructure of eukaryotic cells. The internal infrastructure of the cell comprises the maintenance of shape and integrity which is associated with cellular functioning. This protein forms a tangle of cross-linked filaments referred to as actin cytoskeleton that provides the organizational scaffold of animal, plant and fungal cells. In a typical cell organization, actin filaments are involved in the complex strenuous, structural tasks for instance, in the movement of myosin in muscle cells. The actin protein stricture encompasses a combination of strength and sensitivity. The actin structure can be termed as “dynamic” in virtue of their formation and roles. The dynamic model of actin is powered by a molecule of ATP which is bound to each actin monomer. Free actin bound to an ATP molecule, binds firmly to a ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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