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Bone Tissue Engineering - Book Report/Review Example

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Nishi, Matsumoto, Dong and Uemura provide a clear conceptual framework by beginning with a brief introduction pertaining to the bone tissue engineering technology. According to Nishi et.al bone tissue engineering is regarded as the perfect alternative for bone grafting…
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Download file to see previous pages Nishi, Matsumoto, Dong and Uemura provide a clear conceptual framework by beginning with a brief introduction pertaining to the bone tissue engineering technology. According to Nishi et.al bone tissue engineering is regarded as the perfect alternative for bone grafting.This is mainly because contrary to grafting, bone tissue engineering provides the advantage of being able to produce a specific shaped, as well as size capable of matching any bone defect. Additionally, the technique is also regarded as less tedious compared to grafting, which may often require recurrent surgeries to fit the graft, and may sometimes fail to serve the intended function. Nevertheless, not all implanted tissues tend to work as expected because of non-vascularization that may render a tissue necrotic as a result of failure to form blood vessels. Vascularization is therefore of the essence, but is usually a great challenge in the regeneration of bones. Nishi et.al (pg. 422) conducted a study dubbed Engineered bone tissue associated with vascularization utilizing a rotating wall vessel bioreactor. The study was mainly geared towards investigating a method of performing vascularization, which is crucial towards developing a bone tissue of appropriate sizes and shape for implantation in patients with bone defects. The lack of vascularization has commonly resulted in necrosis of in vivo seeded cells. Thus, Nishi’s et.al (2009) study was therefore one of the first bone tissue engineering associated with vascularization....
This is followed by another step by step procedure of the differentiation of the extracted and cultured mesenchymal cells into endothelial cells, which entailed harvesting the MSCs at 90% culture confluency using 0.25% trypsin-ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA). In addition, they present yet another step-by-step process of co-culturing the mesemchymal stem cells and the endothelium cells derived from the mesenchymal cells in the scaffold. They explained that the process was carried out in a 3D scaffold of D, D-L-L polylactic acid because three dimensional cultures tend to provide a more favorable physiological environment for cells compared to its counterpart two dimensional cultures. Moreover, they justify the use of 3D dimensional cultures by pointing out that 3D cultures allows the use of rotating wall vessels that tend normally improve nutrient supply, while also increase the rate of removal of metabolic wastes. They also provide adequate analytical methods that were incorporated at the various stages of the experiment. They present the first analysis in the experiment at the second stage involving the differentiation of MSCs into endothelial cells. After washing the ECs derived from the MSCs, they employed flow cytometry system, as well as the Flow Jo 7.6 software for data analysis. This enhanced the overall reliability of the experiment. Subsequently, the co-cultured cells were also statistically analyzed using a t-test to determine cells sizes among other aspects. The obtained values were then plotted on graph. The main histochemical analyses included the use of Image J 1.45s software that was used to calculate the relative cell ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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