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Paper 1 Biology - Essay Example

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Human Health and Disease Case Study Insert Name Insert Institution Introduction Human health and disease are two important and inevitable factors in life. In the world, many new diseases and conditions emerge and therefore require extensive clinical examination to avoid misinterpretations…
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Download file to see previous pages 1. Components of physical examination The components of physical examination include inspection, palpation, percussion, and auscultation respectively. However, some physicians may choose a different sequence depending on the training. All these examinations focus on knowing more about the present condition of disease of the patient or even the most probable to occur. Inspection involves the search for signs while palpation involves the feeling for the signs. Percussion is the tapping for signs, mainly in the lung and gut examinations. Auscultation involves using the stethoscope to listen to the heart rate. Anciently, physicians listened directly through the ear. It is not mandatory that all systems will have signs but most will. Physical examination is the general examination of the human body performed by physicians. It covers most of the basic body systems, including the gut, system nerve system, lung system, and heart system. More examinations are not common but it depends on the patient’s clinical condition. Physical examination helps in confirming any persistent issues after a previous diagnosis. It also reveals persistent and hidden pathological entities. Physicians performing this examination always look for signs like the blood pressure, temperature, heart beat rate and respiratory rate. Performing physical examination incurs low costs because the only cost is, the labor cost (Memmlers, 2012). Many medical practitioners have recommended it as a screening test because it is non-invasive and significantly revealing. Doctors are important figures during this process because they make decision with regard to the patient’s clinical history. At times, physical examination requires extensive procedures involving the private body parts. In such situations, the patients must make consent. 2). Blood Pressure The measurement of blood pressure is a quick and painless process that provides the physicians with important information about the condition of the heart and the body blood vessels. a). Doctors use the sphygmomanometer, also known as the blood pressure cuff, to measure the blood pressure. This instrument contains an inflatable cuff and a small pressure gauge attached to the cuff. The cuff wraps around the upper arm, but some wrap around the wrist or forearm. When taking the blood pressure, the doctor uses a stethoscope to the movement of blood through the arteries. The doctor will then inflate the cuff to a pressure that is higher than the patient’s systolic blood pressure. The first sound heard by the doctor through the stethoscope records as the systolic blood pressure. This occurs when the cuff’s pressure is in the process of reducing to reach stability. A second follows immediately the first whooshing one fades away (Memmlers, 2012). This is the diastolic blood pressure. The doctor measure with reference to the heart beat rate for the maximum pressure and the minimum pressure. b). Mr. Smith’s blood pressure was 160/100 The numerator (160) represents the systolic pressure, which is the maximum pressure of blood movement in the artery at that particular when the heart is working to supply blood throughout the body. The denominator represents (100) the diastolic pressure, which is the minimum pressure of blood movement in the artery in the moments between heartbeats and its resting state. c). The significant difference ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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