quora
Nobody downloaded yet

Chromosome Markers in the DNA Tests - Research Paper Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Summary
The following paper "Chromosome Markers in the DNA Tests" describes the specifics of the use of an effective tool for the identification of the humans. Furthermore, the paper will reveal the aspects of performing contemporary DNA test compared to old technology…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER95.7% of users find it useful
Chromosome Markers in the DNA Tests
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample
"Chromosome Markers in the DNA Tests"

Download file to see previous pages Forensic DNA testing is currently performed by using the complex STR multiplex systems. This testing allows the testing of several loci in a single – tube PCR system. A highly variable STR is chosen for the analysis such that they should be within the detection range of 90 – 500 base pairs. These STRs should also be present in the other chromosomes too. Highly polymorphic markers and gender identifying markers are widely used in the STR multiplex systems. All these loci are labeled with different fluorescent dyes for the automated Genotyping. The fluorescent dye is attached to the PCR primers and these dyes get incorporated into the target DNA sequence during the process of amplification.  5-FAM (blue) dye is used for the STR loci D3S1358 and NED (Yellow) dye is used for D19S433 STR loci. By using the two different fluorescent dyes, it was observed that the height and the peaks of the STR loci D3S1358 and D19S433 are similar between them. If we use the same fluorescent dye then it may lead to confusion whether the source of DNA is from a single person or from multiple persons because the peak areas are very important for the determination of the amount of DNA. If the sample is homozygous and have only one peak with the area equal to the two individual peaks then it will be very difficult to analyze the results. This is very frequent if we use the same fluorescent dye for D3S1358 and D19S433. Since D3S1358 and D19S433 are similar to each other, the use of two different dyes will easily differentiate them. (Thompson 2006). The specific dye is incorporated into the PCR product and the level of emission of light and the intensity of light emission gives the details about the size of the DNA. The level of emission may vary for the two STR loci but since they are of same size, the emission level will be same and it will be very difficult to identify the two STRs. The factors for choosing the Fluorescent dye are based on the dyes, optical filters, laser and matrix to which it binds. The D3S1358 is 119 bp to 147 bp in size with the average repeats of 15. These loci will accept the blue dye more readily than the yellow dye. Similarly D19S433 is 206 bp with 9 repeats. (Foster and Laurin 2012). This also will absorb yellow dye more readily than the blue dye. The variation in the base pair is thus an important factor for the choice of fluorescent dyes. The peak heights of the two STR loci D3S1358 and D19S433 vary with the annealing temperatures. Similarly the relative intensity of the loci also varies. (Foster and Laurin 2012). First generation dyes were used for the analysis of the loci initially; later the development of the second generation dyes with more specificity replaced them. The fluorescent dyes used for the multiplex were amandine dyes that emits the color when bind properly to the DNA fragments. The fluorescent dyes NED and 6 - FAM currently for the identification of the D19S433 and D3S1358 produces standard results for the different populations in many parts of the world. (Li et al. 2013). Thus it is concluded that D3S1358 and D19S433 STR loci cannot have same fluorescent dye because they have the similar base pair length and produce the same peak. (Butler 2005). If the same dye is used then they will form only one peak but with ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“Chromosome Markers in the DNA Tests Research Paper”, n.d.)
Chromosome Markers in the DNA Tests Research Paper. Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/biology/1466561-chromosome-markers-in-the-dna-tests
(Chromosome Markers in the DNA Tests Research Paper)
Chromosome Markers in the DNA Tests Research Paper. https://studentshare.org/biology/1466561-chromosome-markers-in-the-dna-tests.
“Chromosome Markers in the DNA Tests Research Paper”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/biology/1466561-chromosome-markers-in-the-dna-tests.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document
CHECK THESE SAMPLES - THEY ALSO FIT YOUR TOPIC
Prenatal Screening (Prenatal Testing) in Clinical Chemistry Labs
Prenatal testing provides information concerning the health of the baby before the baby is born. Some of the routine tests performed on a pregnant mother help to monitor her health. During the first visit, the health care provider tests a number of aspects including the mother’s blood, signs of infection, and whether the mother is immunized.
7 Pages(1750 words)Research Paper
DNA Evidence
Historically, DNA evidence began in the forensic field when ABO blood group was used as a system in providing evidence of crime issues. Later, the paternity identification that based on serum protein variation became commonly used. However, it was not until when Jeffrey became a pioneer of DNA based identity testing.
3 Pages(750 words)Research Paper
Chromosome
According to the report, Chromosome, human beings are born with 23 pairs of chromosomes. Scientifically they are numbered from 1 to 23.The 23rd pair determines the sex.The XX chromosome is found in females while XY in males. Naturally, the pairing of chromosomes and genes is similar to every human being. 
2 Pages(500 words)Essay
Tumour markers
Additionally, when some metabolic pathway or function is affected by cancer, normal tissues could break down resulting in increased concentrations of analytes that also serve as markers for
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay
DNA Fingerprinting
Name Institution Course Instructor Date DNA Fingerprinting Abstract DNA fingerprinting is a laboratory procedure that has proved very useful in personal identification. With its wide applications, it is causing a revolution in the modern world. Typing of DNA presents unique profiles for each individual except identical twins.
5 Pages(1250 words)Research Paper
What is DNA
What is DNA? The criminal justice system has improved over the years and advancements in the field of forensic medicine have revolutionized the way crimes are tackled and dealt with today. Criminal investigations are done in an in-depth manner and this has made it difficult for the offenders to easily get away with their crimes.
5 Pages(1250 words)Research Paper
Serum Markers for Septicemia
Rapid molecular based tests have been developed to address this need but are not always accurate in this respect.The most commonly used biomarkers specially the serum markers are reviewed for their current uses and the diagnostic accuracies including the c reactive proteins and the PCT levels and also serum amyloid and others.
10 Pages(2500 words)Research Paper
DNA fingerprinting
Every strand is composed of nucleotides, a sequence of bases. A base can be one of the four chemicals, adenine, thymine, cytosine, or guanine. The two DNA strands are connected to every base. Bases can only bond with each other as follows: Guanine (G) can only bond
3 Pages(750 words)Research Paper
Down Syndrome
In certain cases this transfer is not successful and this leads to chromosomal abnormalities. These abnormalities occur due to different reasons such as radiations or chemicals. Primary abnormalities in the chromosomal structure are related to four classes which are deletions, inversions, translocations and ring chromosome.
10 Pages(2500 words)Research Paper
Identification of Unknown Bodies using DNA
The obscurity of the task further multiplies when the bodies to be identified belong to victims of mass disasters, catastrophes, gruesome murders and accidents, in which they are deformed or decayed to a large extent. Traditionally, fingerprints have been used for the forensic identification of individuals for a long time, yet they have their own limitations.
7 Pages(1750 words)Research Paper
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.
Let us find you another Research Paper on topic Chromosome Markers in the DNA Tests for FREE!
logo footer
Contact us:
+16312120006
Contact Us Now
FREE Mobile Apps:
  • StudentShare App Store
  • StudentShare Google play
  • About StudentShare
  • Testimonials
  • FAQ
  • Blog
  • Free Essays
  • New Essays
  • Essays
  • Miscellaneous
  • The Newest Essay Topics
  • Index samples by all dates
Join us:
Contact Us