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Acid base balance - Essay Example

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A diagnosis involves identifying the cause and nature of anything. It is mostly used in the determination of symptoms, symptom causes, solutions to issues, and mitigation of problems (De Mendonca, 2004)…
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Acid base balance
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"Acid base balance"

Download file to see previous pages This is so because the physical diagnosis of the patient showed that the man had a systematic blood pressure of 85 mm Hg/50 mm Hg. His heart rate was 175 beats per minute, his respiration was at the rate of 32 breaths per minute, and his temperature was 37.3 degrees Celcius. The arterial blood diagnosis revealed a pH of 7.23, pCO2 of 69mm Hg, O2 saturation of 88%, and the HCO3 2.2 meq per litre. The patient’s pH was 7.23. This was a clear indication that the patient was suffering from an acid-base disorder. The patient was extremely acidemic, and the acidemia appeared to be secondary towards the metabolic acidosis with a base mean observed to be excess more than 7mEq/I. This was linked to the problems with the compensation in the respiration that was insufficient to maintain the normal limits of the pH (Stewart, 2003). This is evidenced from the fact that his breathing was heavy; he had a weak and rapid pulse. The partial pressure of carbon dioxide was 31mm Hg in comparison to the normal range that is 40 mm Hg. The oxygen’s partial pressure was 69 mm Hg in comparison to the normal range, which is 90 to 100 mm Hg (Wilkes, 2008). Compensation is the regulation of acid-base imbalances in the body (Story, 2001). Different agents do exist to reversibly bind the ions of hydrogen and impede the pH change. The extracellular buffer involves agents such as ammonia and bicarbonate. The phosphate and proteins play the role of intracellular buffers. The patient’s body began compensating the disturbances in the acid base. This was done when the patient’s pressure started to be laboured and his blood testing showed increased elevation of creatine phosphokinase amounts of cardiac muscles. This showed a bicarbonate system of buffering which is normally the key since carbon dioxide was shifted by carbonic acid to the ions of hydrogen and biocarbonate. More often than not, acid base imbalances, which may overcome the system of buffer, could be compensated for a short time through altering the ventilation rate. This will change the carbon dioxide concentration within the blood, hence altering the body’s pH. If the body begins to compensate the disturbance in the acid base status, the blood pH will normalize. In this case, the blood pH will move towards the normal range. There are different types of acid base disturbances. The first disturbance is the mixed disorder. The existence of one derangement leads to a simple acid base disorder. It may involve alkosis and acidosis happening at the same time, hence counteracting partially with each other, or there can exist at least two conditions that may affect pH of the body. For instance, mixed acidosis involves a combination of the metabolic acidosis together with the respiratory acidosis. There is no specific arrangement as any of the arrangements is possible, except respiratory acidosis and alkalosis respiration as a person will not breathe too slowly or rather slow for the same time (Knaus, 2005). Other types of acid base imbalances that could lead to the increase in pH include carbon dioxide retention, non-volatile acid production from the protein metabolism and different molecules of organic, biocarbonate loss in the urine, acid and acid precursor’s intake (Figge, 2002). Those sources that may lead to the reduction of pH include hydrogen ion use in the metabolism of various organic anions and acid loss in the urine or through vomiting. Human errors are responsible for the false and incorrect results though implications of such errors are somewhat minor, non-existent, and sometimes merely lead to some inconveniences. In the context of health care, this might not necessarily be the case, given that there are increased chances of such ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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