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Explain the rationale behind antibody usage in common laboratory assays such as ELISA, immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, - Essay Example

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The Rationale behind Antibody Usage in Common Laboratory Assays Such As ELISA, Immunofluorescence, Immunohistochemistry, and Western Blotting, their Relative Advantages and Disadvantages Biology 08 November 2012 Table of Contents Table of Contents 1 Conclusion 15 List of figures Figure 1: ELISA…………………………………………………………………………………5 Figure 2: A representation of direct and indirect immunofluorescence………………….9 Figure 3: Fluorescence overlap of phycoerythrin (PE) and (FITC) Fluorescein Isothiocyanate………………………………………………………………………………?…
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Explain the rationale behind antibody usage in common laboratory assays such as ELISA, immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry,
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Download file to see previous pages Many clinical laboratory tests incorporate antibodies because of their unique feature in identifying and singling out among very much interrelated antigens (Estridge & Reynolds 2011). Any test concerning an antibody-antigen reaction is referred to as a serological test (Kudesia 2006, p. 197). These tests make use of the reality that a good number of viral, bacterial, fungal, and parasitic illnesses bring forth accomplished antibody rejoinders. Therefore, identification of antibodies to infection agents in patients’ samples helps in the discovery of infections such as influenza, HIV, hepatitis, and rubella (Estridge & Reynolds 2011). ...
Immunological tests make use of monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies. Antibodies of one class with specificity to only one epitope are called monoclonal antibodies. These antibodies are derived from a single cell line hence the name monoclonal. They are manufactured in the laboratories, making up the key reagents in most commercially available immunodiagnostic supplies. Polyclonal antibodies, on the other hand, are assortments of antibodies generated by many cell lines. These commercially available antibodies make use of a cloning process during their manufacture. The advantage of cloning antibodies is that it results in higher specificity in the antibodies. Both monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies can be produced from living organisms and cell cultures in the laboratory (Buchwalow & Bocker 2010). Scientists use mice, rats, and rabbits to clone antibodies. Antibody cloning is the production of antibodies from both living and non-living sources. The first step of monoclonal antibody production in rats involves injecting the rat with an antigen that elicits an immune response by production of antibody-forming cells. These antibody forming cells (B-cells) are isolated from the organism. The B-cells then fuse with tissue cultured tumor cells to form hybridomas (Buchwalow & Bocker 2010). The hybridomas then undergo screening for antibody production after which they are cloned into many hybridomas. The final step is the isolation of monoclonal antibodies from the hybridomas. Experience shows that monoclonal antibodies from rabbits exhibit more specificity than antibodies from rats and mice (Buchwalow & Bocker 2010). Measurement of immune responses following an ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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