Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Course: Tutor: Date: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune syndrome which occurs due to interplay of genetic vulnerability and triggers arising from environmental factors (Soldevilla, Briones & Navarra, 2012)…
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Since other fibromyalgia, CNS diseases, autoimmune diseases and infections disease can present with involvement of multisystem disease, when diagnosis of SLE is being carried out, there is need to consider the possibilities of these other conditions. The disease is a multi-factorial, multisystem, chronic, and rarely life-threatening illness with environment, genetic and hormonal origins (Robinson, Sheets & Currie, 2011). It can also affect any part of the body including blood cells, nervous system, skin, joints, and kidneys. Mostly, women aged 15-40 years are largely associated with SLE. Predominance of SLE In the U.S, the incidence levels reported annually is approximately 5.2% in every 100,000 people. The frequency of the disease differs with ethnicity and race. High rates of SLE are seen in women who are in the childbearing age. Higher rates of SLE have been reported in Hispanic and black people with an estimated 40 in every 100,000 white people in Rochester, Minnesota while in Nogales, Arizona a 100 Hispanics in every 100,000 have the disease. However, there is less prevalence reported in the Northern Europe region, but the disease is mostly common in African Americans. Mina & Brunner (2010) also proposed that in an estimated number of 10 in 20% of the patients with SLE experience the disease prior adulthood. In international statistics, highest predominance levels have been report in Afro-Caribbean, Martinique, Italy, United Kingdom and Spain population. Even though the disease is seen more in the black people who reside in United Kingdom, it is less common in those who are in Africa. This has been attributed to environmental influences (Patel et al., 2006). However, in terms of race, the black women possess a higher likelihood of getting the disease than white women and Asians. One in every two hundred and fifty African American women is reported to have the disease showing how widespread the disease is in women Furthermore, the highest predominance rates are seen in ninety percent of the female population while the prevalence rates are considerably lower in the male population. Older men are affected by the disease compared to younger men but generally lupus is seen in very low rates among the male population (Alarcon et al., 2004). The death causes are mostly attributed to cardiovascular disease, organ failure, infections and active disease. The survival rate has progressed signifying that milder cases of SLE are being recognized. Over the past period of four years, the survival rate of patients with the disease has increased to 80% as opposed to that of the last fifteen years which was 50% showing that there is some progress in research. Pathophysiology Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus usually have a complicated range of abnormalities concerning their body defense system. SLE is connected with triggering 2 key components of the adaptive immunity, T and B cells (Alarcon et al., 2004). The abnormalities which target the adaptive immune system consist of production of autoantibodies as well as defective killing of T-Cells. In patients with SLE, the T cells usually express a smaller amount of IL-2. This is the main cytokine for differentiation, activation and proliferation of T-cells. The T-cells in SLE patients have a problem with signaling responses which result to the small IL-2 and CD3 amount. These abnormalities cause a decreased cytotoxic activity. Moreover, there is an incapability to repress
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It possesses a structure similar to that of folic acid, and is a chemotherapeutic drug extensively used in treating patients having breast cancer, osteogenic sarcomas and leukaemia. Structure of Methotrexate X-ray diffraction technique was carried out to help determine the crystal and the molecular structure of Methotrexate.
She also complains of fatigue, fever, weight loss, mouth soreness, muscle aches and pains, especially on her hands and wrists. Patient is yet to be diagnosed with a confirmed diagnosis. Physical Assessment The client was seen sitting comfortably on the examination table.
The author explains that SLE is a chronic, inflammatory, prototypic, systemic autoimmune disease affecting connective tissues such as skin, joints along with kidney and serosal membranes. Researchers available indicate an environmental cause, which leads to the development of the disease in individuals genetically predisposed.
These factors make lupus a very important topic for this course, as all students should gain a thorough awareness of the diseases that may be encountered during a professional career. Especially in the case of lupus, which is so complicated and has such a wide variety of possible symptoms, the student must take extra care to examine the characteristics of the disease.
However, other patients with SLE do not respond to such a treatment and that such a treatment would be insufficient to control the disease. Therefore, what is important is to find out if certain specific methods work best with patients who are severely suffering from the disease or those who do not respond to current strategies and medication.
For the body to fight antigens such as bacteria and viruses, it has to produce proteins known as antibodies. It is therefore the responsibility of these antibodies to protect the body from foreign organisms such as viruses and bacteria. In order to be effective, the antibody has to differentiate the antigens from normal human tissues.
People often have to wait a significant amount of time for the disease to be correctly diagnosed because of this. Which systems are affected is not uniform across sufferers, and for some the disease may have only minor implications, while for others it can be severe.
Skin biopsy was suggested for the rashes but was refused by the patient. Treatment done was with low dose steroids and Plaquenil which offered resolution of symptoms. Diagnosis of SLE is difficult and it takes a combination of study of the
In the case of lupus the results of this attack are widespread and involve such things as joint damage, inflammation of tendons and the whole connective tissue system as well as organs . This damage occurs because the body produces
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